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Terms in this set (39)
when one or both ears are very small in size
when one or both ears are entirely absent.
Disorders of the Auricle
Disorders of the auricle appear to have little to no effects on hearing sensitivity. Surgical procedures to correct the auricle are called otoplasty or pinnaplasty.
occurs when the cartilaginous portion, boney portion, or the entirety of the external ear auditory canal fails to form during development. Treacher Collins Syndrome and CHARGE syndrome
Collapsing External Auditory Canals
Collapsed EAC may occur in approx. 4% of audiology caseloads, with most cases occurring in the extremes of the age spectrum
-occurs in the skin of EAC
-"swimmers ear" is common when water gets trapped in EAC. --Particularly common in tropical areas.
-Can be fungal or bacterial
-Itching, swelling of infected area with pain upon touch, and fever
fungal external ear infection (external otitis)
infection of the hair follicles. (external otitis)
infection of the tympanic membrane (external otitis)
Necrotizing or malignant external otitis
extremely dangerous to individuals with diabetes and the elderly population, often requiring hospitalization and aggressive antibiotic treatment.
boney tumors, may present hearing problems if their size is such that an occlusion of the EAC results (growth in EAC)
the outward protrusion on the surface of the bone, often seen in individuals who spend time in cold water (surfers ear) (Growth in EAC)
occurs when the mass of TM is effected by calcium plaques resulting in the interference of its natural vibration. May or may not result in a difference in hearing sensitivity depending on severity.
-infection of the mucous membrane lining the middle ear cleft.
-Occurs in 70% of children prior to age 2
-Infection occurs through spread of sepsis via the Eustachian tube, perforated tympanic membrane, or through bloodborne infection from another site in the body.
Suppurative Otitis Media and HL
-presence of purulent (pus producing) fluid in the middle ear
-pain in the ME in combination with increased pulse rates and body temp. are common symptoms.
-can spread to the mastoid and breakdown the walls separating the air cells leading to meningitis.
-loss is typically flat, showing equal amounts of HL across all freqs.
Cholesteatoma (surgery, symptoms)
-(pseudo tumors) is a skin growth in the middle ear made of keratin mixed with squamous cells and cholesterol
-Treatment is surgery
-Common symptom is ottorhea (discharge from middle ear)
-Infection (otitis media) erodes the bony covering of fallopian canal exposing the facial nerve to infection process
-surgical procedure in which tiny incesion is made in tympanic membrane.
-Need for myringotomy usually indicated abnormal Eustachian tube functioning.
-If chronic, pressure equalizing tubes may be inserted to incision to allow drainage from middle ear cavity.
Removal of portions of the mastoid.
Repair of the tympanic membrane itself, also refers to surgery on the ossicles
Negative Middle Ear Pressure (Treatments)
-related to improper Eustachian tube functioning.
o Edema: caused by infection or allergies
o Blockage: due to overgrown adenoids.
-symptoms include inability to equalize pressure in ME.
-Treatments : Valsalve maneuver and Toynbee maneuver
Patulous Eustachian Tubes (PET)
-chronically open Eustachian tubes associated with pregnancy and hormonal changes. 30% incedence
-Symptoms include autophony (head-in-barrel)
-Can be diagnosed using tympanometry methods.
Serous Effusion of the Middle Ear (treatment)
if neg, ME pressure is left untreated, fluids may be sucked into middle ear cavity. The fluid is not harmful but bacteria can invade and turn into infection.
-Can impact performance of the ME ossicles resulting in conductive loss
-Treatment: pressure equalizing tubes.
Mucous Otitis Media
-ME becomes filled with thick mucoid secretions "glue ear"
-Can impede functioning of ossicles, damage ME tissue, and cause scarring.
-The scar forming tissue can be fibrous resulting in a web of adhesion which can bind any or all of ME ossicles.
-Can also cause calcium deposits to develop resulting in tympanosclerosis.
a common cause of HL in adults. (hereditary in 70%)
-the problem originates in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear, but is not usually detected until affects ME. Appears as the formation of new growth of spongy bone over the footplate of the stapes. The growth partially fixes the stapes in the oval window.
Symptoms of Otosclerosis
-Symptoms: bluish cast to whites of eyes, difficulty hearing while chewing, tinnitus, schwarze sign (rosy glow on promontory seen through TM) and paracusis willisii (understand speech better in noise, due to Lombard voice reflex.
-Reverse slope conductive HL with low freq air bone gaps
-Presence of Carhart notch at 2000 Hz there is a dip in bone conduction.
Treatments for Otosclerosis
-Fenestration: bypassing the ossicular chain for sound transmission which required mastoid surgery and an artificial opening in another part of the ear. A new window was created.
-stapes mobilization: rocks the stapes until it is free
-stapedectomy with prosthesis
rapid rocking movements of the eyes.
warm or cold water or air is circulated in the air canal. The temp stimulates the inner ear in order to test for nystagmus
battery of eye movement tests that look for signs of vestibular dysfunction or neurological problems.
Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPT)
to determine if the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve and central connections are intact and working normally.
-large amounts of some drugs over prolonged periods of time may cause tinnitus and hearing loss
o mycin group (antibiotics), tuberculosis drugs, quinine (maleria), asprin, diurectics, nicotine, alcohol. High freqs effected first.
Barotrauma (symptoms, treatment)
-sudden fluctuations in middle ear pressure can cause rupture of round window or tearing of the annulus of oval window.
-sensory or mixed
-may cause vertigo
-treatment: surgical repair
Noise Induced Hearing Loss
-may be result of brief exposure (subsequent partial or complete recovery) or repeated exposure (permanent impairment).
o Temporary or permanent threshold shifts
-term used to describe noise induces hearing loss due to impulsive sound.
-Acoustic trauma notch 3k-6k with 8k recovery.
Sudden Idiopathic Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SISNHL)
-Sudden onset without identifiable cause
-Decrease of at least 30 dB over atleast three octaves.
-Causes include: autoimmune disease, viral infection, rupture of basilar membrane, vascular disease, spasm in auditory artery.
-disorder of inner ear resulting from an imbalance in the volume or chemical make up of the endolymph found in the labyrinth of the inner ear.
-Oversecretion or underabsorbtion of endolymph.
-May result from blow to head, infection, degeneration, allergy, tumor, but in many cases the cause is unknown.
Symptoms and Treatments For Meniere's
-As fluid builds or drops, it interferes with the normal balance and hearing signals between inner ear and brain.
-Causes: vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and feeling of fullness or congestion in the ear. Sudden unilateral HL.
oDizziness may be sudden or after tinnitus or muffled hearing
oMay have single attacks of dizziness separated by long periods of time, or many attacks over a number of days.
oSome have "drop attacks" vertigo so extreme lose balance and fall
-Treatment: wicking, medication, and surgery
-HL due to age
-Arteriosclerosis: causes oxygen deficiencies
-Symptoms: speech recognitions differences
-25% of adults 45-64
-40% of adults over 65
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