Terms in this set (55)
what is an autotroph?
what is a heterotroph?
what is the original source of energy for everything?
how is nitrogen cycled through the biosphere
nitrogen starts in the atmosphere as nitrogen gas. It can get fixed three different ways, 1. lightning 2. by bacteria in the roots of legumes 3. the Haber process a man made process that makes fertilizer. Once in the soil, nitrogen is taken up by plants and then animals eat the plants. Nitrogen is used to make proteins and muscles. Once the plants and animals die, different bacteria break down the dead things and release the nitrogen back into the atomosphere to start the cycle over again.
How does nitrogen enter the atmosphere?
denitrifying bacteria break down dead things
how does nitrogen leave the atmosphere
2. bacteria in the roots of legumes
3. the Haber process, a man made way of making fertilizer
How is phosphorus cycled throughout the biosphere
phosphorus never enters the atmosphere. It is found in the soil and dissolved in water. Plants take it out of the soil or from the water. Animals eat the plants and when plants and animals die, they decompose and the phosphorus is added back into the soil
What happens if too much phosphorus enters the biosphere
How is carbon added to the atmosphere?
cellular respiration, burning things, burning fossil fuels
How is carbon taken out of the atmosphere?
plants take carbon out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis
What happens when too much carbon is added to the atmosphere?
Is new matter added to the earth on a daily bases?
What would happen if the old matter didn't get recycled?
the earth would be filled with dead bodies and nothing would enter back into the cycle. No new things could be created
Name an organism that helps to recycle matter and the type of matter it recycles
bacteria recycle dead material like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
loss of water from leaves into the atmosphere
main reservoir for nitrogen
when living organisms do not have enough of a nutrient (such as phosphorus) it can
limit the organism's growth
The process where nitrogen from the atmosphere is converted to usable forms such as ammonia and nitrates is called
The main reservoir for phosphorus is
Where is carbon stored in the biosphere?
in the atmosphere, in the oceans, and underground
True of False: Bacteria, legumes, and decomposers are all involved in the phosphorus cycle.
What is the process that represents a phase change from a gas to a liquid?
What is the source of carbon atoms for animals?
Why do organisms need phosphorus?
to make DNA, RNA, and ATP.
What is included in the carbon cycle?
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration, the decomposition of living things, and a release of carbon into the atmosphere.
What causes condensation?
What does condensation form?
The process of water changing from a liquid to a gas is
What is humidity?
The amount of water vapor in the air.
What are three types of precipitation?
rain, snow, and hail
What percentage of the Earth's water exists in the oceans?
Although the atmosphere appears to be invisible, it actually consists of
water vapor molecules
True or False: Fog and Dew are a main part of the water cycle.
plants transpire water from their leaves and water is evaporated from the soil all around them
why does groundwater move?
How is groundwater used in nature?
keeping plants alive, filling aquifers, providing water to rivers and lakes, and eventually flowing into the oceans.
True or False: Over millions of years, movement of crustal plates uplifts the seafloor and the phosphates become exposed as terrestrial rocks.
True or false: the geochemical phase is more rapid than the ecosystem phase of the Phosphorus Cycle.
How do herbivores, carnivores, and decomposers obtain Phosphorus?
Herbivores get phosphates by eating plants, Carnivores get phosphates by eating herbivores, and Decomposers get phosphates by breaking down wastes and dead organisms.
In marine ecosystems, what are phosphates taken up by?
What is guano and how is it returned to the phosphorus cycle?
Guano is bird waste. Weathering returns phosphates to the sea.
From where is phosphate mined and what is done with it afterwards?
phosphate is mined from shallow coastal waters and is then added to fertilizers.
what percentage of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen gas?
What are the names of the three bacteria that convert nitrogen into ammonia, ammonia into nitrite, and nitrate and nitrogen.
nitrogen fixing bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and denitrifying bacteria.
True of False: Legumes are unlike other plants because the have bacteria in their roots that can fix nitrogen. Other plants must absorb nitrate or ammonium ions.
How do animals and humans assimilate nitrogen?
Why do cells need nitrogen?
to make proteins, DNA, and other molecules.
What is the object that causes much of the nitrogen fixation by humans?
How does nitrogen return to the atmosphere?
bacteria convert ammonium back to nitrogen gas, which goes to the atmosphere.
What percent of the atmosphere is carbon and what chemical compound is it in?
0.04% in the form of carbon dioxide
What is the concern with having too much carbon in our atmosphere?
more carbon dioxide makes the planet warmer.
Which reservoir do plants use to access carbon and what do they use it for?
plants get carbon from the atmosphere and use it to make the nutrition they need.
Where does carbon end up after it is used by decomposers?
What are three ways carbon can get to the "surface ocean"?
diffusing from the atmosphere, decomposing marine life, and from circulating water from the deep ocean.
which of the six reservoirs holds the most carbon and what percentage does it hold?
deep oceans, 65%