130 terms

Cognitive Neuroscience Final

Questions from past tests
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Parkinson's disease results from cell death in the ---, which is a part of the ----
Substantia nigra; basal Ganglia
Which of the following is not an Effector?
The brain
Corticospinal fibers originate primarily in the:
Primary motor cortex
Lesions to the pyramidal tract would produce difficulty in moving effectors on which side of the body?
The contralateral side
One major difference between the pyramidal and the extrapyramidal motor factors is their points of the origin. The pyramidal tracts carry messages from--- to the spinal cord, whereas the extrapyramidal tracts carry messages from--- to the spinal cord.
cortical structures; subcortical structures
Simple reflexive motor responses to the external stimuli rely primarily on the function of the---, whereas motor behaviors that are only minimally dependent on such external cues rely primarily on the function of the---.
spinal cord; motor cortex
----- seems particularly important in the control and planning of complex motor sequences as opposed to simple movements.
The motor cortex regions in the prefrontal lobes
Mirror cells are neurons in the--- cortex that respond wen a person produces a particular movement and when the person---
premotor; perceives another animal producing the same movement.
Hemiplegia is the:
paralysis of the side of the body that is contralateral to the injured brain region
After suffering a focal brain injury, a patient has great difficulty in pantomiming particular motor actions such as turning a key in a lock. Because other problems like hemiplegia, muscle weakness, sensory deficits, and lack of motivation have been ruled out, your diagnosis would be..
apraxia
A patient has damage to the basal ganglia, particularly within the striatum, and demonstrates both chorea and hyperkinesia. What is your diagnosis?
Huntington's disease
What disorder is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic fibers in the substantia nigra, which results in deficits in initiating voluntary movements, bradykinesia, and progressive emergence of resting tremor?
Parkinson's disease
--- is the process of acquiring new information, whereas--- is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later time.
learning; memory
--- refers to the processing of incoming information to be stored.
Enconding
George miller and other investigators found that humans can hold about--- items in short-term memory at a time.
Seven
Organizing individual bits of information into higher-order units can increase the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory. This strategy is called.
Chunking
Visual sensory memory is to--- as auditory sensory memory is to---
Iconic memory; echoic memory
The term--- refers to a limited- capacity store that not only retains information over the short term (maintenance) but also permits the performance of mental operations with the contents of this store (manipulation)
Working memory
Declarative or explicit memory is knowledge that;
One can access consciously
Implicit memory is to --- as explicit memory is to---
Priming; episodic memory
Barbara remembers that Madrid is the capital of spain, but she has no idea when or where she acquired this knowledge. Her--- memory is accurate, but her--- memory is incomplete.
Semantic; episodic
Deficits in memory as a function of brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma are known consecutively as
amnesia
Which of the following would be the most difficult for the famous patient H.M and other patients with medial temporal lobe removal?
Learning the words for numbers in a foreign language
After suffering a severe head injury, a patient demonstrates a dense anterograde amnesia, She
cannot create new memories for the even that occurred after the injury
Which of the following statements is true of the kind of amnesia demonstrated by people with bilateral hippocampal damage or people with diencephalon injury?
They can still earn new skills, such ad a mirror drawing task, after the injury
It appears that the medial temporal lobes are important in consolidating explicit long-term memories but are not themselves the storage sites for this knowledge because:
most episodic and semantic memories acquired before the injury to these structures will remain intact
Long-term potentiation does not occur unless the neurotransmitter--- is present in the synapse to bind to postsynaptic NDMA receptors.
Glutamate
Which of the following is not considered one of the six basic facial expressions representing emotional states?
Jealousy
Some theories of emotion employ a factor approach. In one conceptualization, the first factor is ---, or how pleasant or unpleasant the stimulus is, and the second factor is---, or how intense the emotional response is.
Valence; arousal
You conduct an experimental in which you expose a rat repeatedly at a 440 Hz tone and an electric shock. After a few trials, the rat begins to show signs of fear in response to just the tone. In this paradigm, the electric shock is the--- while the tone is the---
conditional response; unconditional response
One of the two pathways of the amygdala is known as the "low road". This pathway can be characterized as--- and involves a ---
Slow and analytical; projection to the cortex
Patient S.P., who had bilateral damage to the amygdala, participated in a study involving the pairing of a blue square with an electric shock. S.P.'s skin conductance response (SCR) and verbal report indicated that
She expected that the shock would occur after seeing the blue square, but did not demonstrate any implicit fear-conditioning SCR response
In a fear-conditioning experiment, you find a person who shows a normal skin conductance response to a conditioned stimulus (such as a blue square), but he does not consciously remember the pairing of the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus (such as a shock). This person may have damage to the
Hippocampus
The mechanism through which the amygdala modulates hippocampus- based learning may be related to the observation that:
arousing stimuli are remembered netter than nonarousing stimuli do
The amygdala responds to fearful facial expressions
regardless of whether the face is consciously perceived
--- is a general term for deficits in language comprehension and production that occur as the result of brain injury.
Aphasia
Patient "tan", studied by the neurologist Broca, had great difficulty in generating spontaneous speech and was unable to utter any word other than the nonsense syllable "tan". Postmortem autopsy of Tan's brain revealed:
A large lesion in the left inferior frontal cortex
jThe term--- refers to the collective store of information about the semantic, syntax, orthography, and phonology of words.
mental lexicon
Conscious awareness is due to--- activation
cortical
Which of the following is a dissociative drug?
Ketamine
Premotor cortex
motor planning
Broca's area
speech production
Spinal cord
motor reflexes
cerebellum
balance and coordination
alpha motor neuron
voluntary muscle activation
Basal ganglia
initiation of action
mirror neurons
embodied cognition
amygdala
emotion
hippocampus
memory
prefrontal cortex
decision-making
Split-brain research s associated with which of the following?
Callosotomy
What are homotopic brain areas?
areas in corresponding locations in the two cerebral hemispheres
The main mass of fibers that carries signals from the cortex in one cerebral hemisphere to the other is called the:
Corpus callosum
Which of the following people would be most likely to receive the split-brain procedure?
a person with epilepsy
Assessment of the visual processing carried out by each hemisphere in split-brain patients usually involves the brief simultaneous presentation of different stimuli to each visual field while the participant fixates on a central point in space. Why is it necessary to ensure that stimulus presentation if brief?
The short presentation time is necessary to prevent eye movements, which would redirect information across the visual fields
A small object, such as key, is placed in the right hand of a split-brain patient who has her eyes closed. Assuming that this person has left-hemisphere language dominance, which of the following best describes her ability to report information about the object based on how it feels?
She will be able to name and describe it verbally
The following is sample stimulus shown briefly to a split-brain patient who has the typical pattern of language dissonance. If you ask her to name the object she sees, what will her answer probably be?
"circle"
If a split-brain patient with the typical pattern of language dominance is shown an object briefly in her left visual field, she will be able to indicate what she saw successfully if she is asked to:
point to the object using her left hand
A general function that is associated with right-hemispheric activity in most people is
visuospacial processing
Lesions of the right hemisphere disrupt perception of--- in visual stimuli and --- in speech.
Global structure; prosody
Based on what you have learned about laterally, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Both hemispheres play a role in most tasks in all people, working in concert with each other
Here are a hierarchical letter figure and a copy of this stimulus draw by a person with a unilateral brain injury. Where is the most common probable location of this injury?
The left temporoparietal cortex
Which of the following statements best described the correlation between handedness and hemisphere dominance for language function in humans?
The correlation is weak, such that almost all right-handers and at least half of left-handers exhibit left-hemisphere language dominance, regardless of handedness.
Of the following choices, the strongest evidence for a link between the sense of smell and the triggering of memories is the observation that
The olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to the limbic cortex
Which area of the body has the greatest amount of representation in the human primary somatosensory cortex?
Hands
The primary visual pathway is best described as
retina- optic nerve-optic chiasm-thalamus-occipital lobe
Which term is used to describe an idiosyncratic union between or within sensory modalities, such as experiencing the color red whenever seeing the letter A?
Synesthesia
A patient like G.S. who had visual object agnosia would have difficulty in identifying an object unless
He was permitted to touch the object before making a response
When her telephone rings, a patient who has been diagnosed with visual object agnosia immediately picks up the receiver and answers it correctly. Why doesn't this person show any signs of an object recognition deficit in this scenario?
The patient can use the sound of the ringing telephone to cue its recognition.
Anatomical outputs from the occipital lobe follow two major axon bundles that terminate in the --- and ---
Posterior parietal lobe; anterior parietal lobe
With regard to the two main output pathways from the occipital lobe,--- is to--- as dorsal is to ventral.
"Where"; "What"
Optic ataxia is an inability to
Use visual information to guide movements
After suffering from a focal brain injury, a patient has difficulty in recognizing visually presented objects, despite normal acuity and color perception. Notably, she has a severe difficulty in judging whether two pictures,each showing a different view, represent the same object. What is the most probable diagnoses?
apperceptive agnosia
The term--- refers to the operations involved when we select for further processing a limited subset of information from the total information available to us from our sensory systems and stored mental representations.
attention
The involuntary failure to attend to sensory stimuli presented on the side of space opposite to the site of brain injury (in the absence of sensory problems) is called---syndrome.
neglect
--- is the idea that a stimulus does not have to be completely analyzed before it cal be either selected for further processing or rejected as irrelevant.
early selection
You are working diligently in the chemistry laboratory when suddenly a small explosion occurs in the rear of the room, immediately and automatically capturing your attention. This is an example of:
reflexive attention
Hillyard and colleagues(1973) recorded event-related (ERP) from participants while they performed a dichotic listening tack. When comparing the ERPs collected when participants attended to a given signal to when they ignored this signal, the researchers found that auditory ERPs
Were larger for attended versus unattended signals
Alexandra believes that the effect of attention on perception occur very quickly on a fine temporal scale. Which of the following techniques should she use to investigate the changes in perceptual processing that may accompany focused attention?
MEG (magnetoencephalography)
What is the name of the IBM computer that can play Jeopardy?
Watson
Face recognition
Prosoopagnosia
object recognition
agnosia
word recognition
alexia
speech
aphasia
pain
nociception
color vision
cones
night vision
rods
black and white vision
achromatopsia
motion perception
akenitopsia
prosody
tone of voice
visual perception
name an object
auditory perception
sound discrimination
olfactory perception
identify rose by smell
Gustatory perception
differentiate salty vs. bitter
Tactile perception
react to a pinprick
attention
neglect
Occipital-Parietal pathway
starts in occipital ends in posterior parietal, the where
occipital temporal pathway
starts in occipital ends in inferior temporal, what
Aside from saving Anne Green's life, Thomas Willis and Christopher Wren also
All of the above
Which nineteenth-century scientist suggested that the frontal lobe contributes to language and speech production?
Broca
Which of the following things would have been the most difficult for the famous individual studied by Paul broca, compared to before his stroke?
Reading a book aloud
Which of the following things would have been most difficult for the famous individual described by Carl Warnicke, compared to after his stroke?
understanding a speech
Warnicke was an early researcher who suggested that the--- contributes to language comprehension.
Left temporoparietal area
One reason that early research on specific human cognitive capacities and the brain areas that are responsible for them developed rather slowly before the twentieth century is that
most early investigators were limited to postmortom studies to localize lesions
Korbinian Brodmann used--- techniques to document fifty-two regions of the brain that differed in---
tissue staining; cytoarchitectonics
Cytoarchitectonic maps distinguish different cortical regions by
Their structure at the cellular level
The term synapse, coined by Sherrington, refers to the junction between
two adjacent neurons
Ebbinghous, who is considered the father of modern memory research, was among the first to demonstrate that
Internal mental processes can be measured in rigorous and reproducible ways
Cells that fire together, wire together, was first proposed by Donald Hebb as an explanation for
The way in which the brain codes new learning
The two main classes of the cell in the nervous system are
neurons and glial cells
Within a neuron, the transmission of information is usually---. Between neurons, the transmission of information is usually---
electrical; chemical
The---, which is compromised of astrocytes, protects the brain from chemical compounds circulating in the body that might otherwise interfere with neuronal activity.
Blood-brain barrier
Which of the following cells produce myelin in the central nervous system?
oligodendrocytes
Which of the following sequences of steps best represents the order of events that occur during synaptic transmission?
release neurotransmitter at the presynaptic membrane- diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synapse- binding of neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane
The value of the membrane potential to which an axon must be depolarized to initiate an action potential is called--- potential for that neuron
Threshold
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for removing a neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft?
Transport of the neurotransmitter by ion channels into neighboring glial cells
The frontal lobe is--- to the occipital lobe; whereas the temporal lobe is --- to the parietal lobe
anterior; lateral
As a result of the brain injury to the medial temporal lobes and neighboring subcortical structures, a patient exhibits a number of cognitive and behavioral changes. Of the options here, which is the LEAST likely to be affected?
somatosensation
The driver in a car accident first hits the windshield with great force, then rebounds backward. Which part of the brain would you expect to be damaged as a result of the countercoup injury?
The posterior occipital lobes
Which neuroimaging technique involves injecting an isotope of oxygen into the bloodstream and using it to measure regional cerebral blood flow?
PET
Which of the following statements is false?
Cognitive psychologists use experiments to prove that there is a cause and effect relationship between a brain injury and loss of function
Which of the following correctly represents the order of events involved in information processing?
Sensation>perception>cognition>action
David and Andrea are sitting in a coffee shop talking and suddenly Andrea's words become jumbled and she is unable to lift her right arm. What is most likely happening to Andrea?
She is experiencing a cerebral vascular accident
The independent variable in this study is
number of impacts
The dependent variable in this study is
water maze performance
Which aspect of the brain was directly impacted by the weight drop?
dorsal
Which type of injury were the mice in the experiment group exposed to?
concussion
Based on the results of this study, which of the following statements is true?
Mild traumatic brain injury in mice causes loss of consciousness and cognitive impairment
At which structure are neurotransmitters release?
terminal ends
What is the diagram of?
neuron
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