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True or false: World food supplies have more than kept up; with human population growth over the past two centuries
What is the greatest threat to food security?
Ability to obtain sufficient food on a daily basis
What steps would be important towards food security in developing countries?
Providing land grands, credit and education to women
Large-scale food shortages, massive starvation, social disruption, and economic chaos
Immediate trigger of famines
Underlying causes of famines
Armed conflict, political oppression, commodity hoarding, price gouging, wars and poverty
Aid policies of rich countries serve to distribute surplus commodities and produce generosity but they're typically
What % of Americans are overweight?
20% or more over ideal weight
What % of Americans are obese?
Being overweight increases chances of
Hypertension, diabetes, heart attack, stroke, arthritis, respiratory problems, and cancer
Generally, you should get the nutrients you need by
Eating a variety of foods
What is the bulk of diet for poor populations?
Many get enough calories but lack
Sufficient protein, vitamins, and trace minerals
Nutritional imbalance caused by a lack of specific dietary components or an inability to absorb or utilize essential nutrients
How many people suffer from vitamin, mineral, or protein deficiency?
What is the most common dietary imbalance in the world?
Iron deficiency leads to
Anemia, insufficient hemoglobin in the blood
Lack of iodine leads to
Goiter as well as stunted growth and reduced mental capacity
Lack of vitamin A affects as many as ________ children, many going blind
"Displaced child" occurs mainly in children whose diet lacks high-quality protein. Discolored skin + bloated stomach
"To waste away." Caused by a diet low in protein and calories. Very thin, shriveled with low resistance to infection
Which three crops deliver the majority of needed nutrients to humanity?
Wheat, rice, corn
In developed countries, meat consumption has
Meat is a high source of
Protein, iron, fats
Meat production is a good indicator of
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO)
Where animals are housed in giant enclosures and fed diets of soy and corn for rapid growth
New breeds of livestock have been developed which produce meat
Use of _______ allows producers to limit the spread of disease among animals being raised in such high densities
Livestock produce about _______ of the world's emission of greenhouse gases
Reducing your meat consumption by ______ would reduce energy consumption more than switching from a standard car to a hybrid
Seafood is an important ________ source
Seafood is the primary source of protein for _______ people in developing countries
Many fisheries in the world have become
The world's fisheries will be exhausted by
Unwanted marine creatures that are caught in the nets while fishing for another species
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
Uses wild populations of seafood to
Stock and feed captive populations
Aquaculture releases large quantities of
feces, antibiotics, and other pollutants
Converting land to soy and corn production for animal feed
Increases soil erosion
Reduce the use of energy, antibiotics and other environmental costs associated with modern agriculture
Rotational grazing of cattle on grass
Invigorates pastors growth, distributes manure, keeps livestock healthy without antibiotics
Organic farming techniques can be more
Most of the world's food comes from only
Hybrid between wheat and rye
Entire plant is edible
Most major improvements in farm production have come from
Technological advances and modification of a few well-known species
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Green revolution started over
50 years ago
Green Revolution plants are
High responding plants only show increased yields if they have
fertilizers and protection from plants
We have the need to
Sustain more people on less land
What has the potential to pick up where the Green Revolution left off?
Removes DNA from one organism and splices it into chromosomes of another. Produces GMOs with new traits
genetically modified organisms
Genetic engineering can produce crops with
pest-resistance and wider tolerance levels to drought and low nutrient soils
Gene transfer techniques
1) DNA extracted from donor organism, cut using enzymes
2) Use enzymes to splice gene into DNA extracted from bacterial cell
3) Re-insert DNA into bacterial cell
4) Allow bacterium to infect plant cell. DNA enters nucleus
5) Culture callus (plant tumor) in laboratory
6) Callus, with altered DNA, grows to mature plant
Concerns regarding GMOs
GMOs might produce superweeds resistant to pesticides.
Native biodiversity may be reduced.
Novel toxins might be created.
Technology may only be available to the rich, making family farms uncompetitive and driving poor nations further into poverty.
Also called GMOs
Transgenic crops can be engineered to tolerate high levels of
What are two of the most popular transgenic crops?
Roundup Ready and Liberty link. Both can grow in the presence of pesticides.
Food security has to do with
A) A country's dependence on cash crop exports
B) Preventing wars over diminishing food supplies
C) The ability of a population to obtain food on a day-to-day basis
D) The total volume of food a country imports
E) The total volume of aid a country receives
The ability of a population to obtain food on a day-to-day basis
The most common dietary problem in rich countries is
A) Iron deficiency
B) Over eating
C) Inadequate intake of vitamins
D) Inadequate intake of minerals
According to the Harvard Food Pyramid, which of these should be eaten sparingly?
A) Whole grains
E) Red meat
Below a caloric intake of _______ kcal per day, on average, a person is considered chronically undernourished
E) None of the above
Famines are often most serious when there is
A) No food for children
B) No room to expand agriculture
C) Steady population growth
D) Armed conflict and political oppression
E) An attempt by indigenous people to return to old traditions and lands
Armed conflict and political oppression
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