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Water molecules stick to each other as a result of hydrogen bonds


Water molecules stick to other substances (ex: water up a plant)

surface tension

Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

temperature stabilization

absorbs heat from air and releases itt to where it's cooler

high specific heat

heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds, and heat is released when hydrogen bonds form

evaporative cooling

molecules move fast enough to overcome the attractions between them can depart the liquid and enter the air as gas

expands when frozen

water expands because of hydrogen bonding hydrogen bonds keep the molecules at "arms length"


a liquid that is a mixture of hydrogen bonding


"water loving" - a substance that has an affinity for water


"water fearing" - a substance that does not have an affinity for water


higher concentration of H+/ have pH less than 7


higher concentration of oH-/have pH more than 7


internal pH of most living cells cells/close to 7/minimize changes in pH


the dissolving agent


the substance that is dissolved

ionic bond

electrons are transferred from one atom to another-STRONG

covalent bond

electrons are shared among atoms-STRONG

hydrogen bond

weak bonds formed between molecules that have weak partial charges


partial negative with hydrogen/ opposite charges opposite elements

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