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Bio psych test 4 (ch. 17)
Terms in this set (25)
Case study: H.M.
suffered from severe epilepsy.
-his seizures began in the temporal lobes, a decision was made to remove the anterior temporal lobes on both sides.
-H.M. surgery removed the amygdala, the hippocampus, and some cortex.
- had normal short-term memory but had severe anterograde amnesia.
-H.M. was able to improve his motor skills with practice, but he could not remember performing them.
Case study: N.A.
profound anterograde amnesia.
-damage to the thalamus and hypothalamus, and probable damage to the mammillothalamic tract
-subsequent loss of connections to the hippocampus, dorsomedial thalamus and both mammillary bodies.
Case study: K.C.
can not retrieve personal episodic memory due to damage to the cortex and severe shrinkage of the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex
- his semantic memory is good
the loss of memories formed before onset amnesia and is not uncommon after brain trauma.
the inability to form new memories after onset of a disorder.
- recollection of the item in context
- function of the hippocampus
- familiarity with the features of the item
-mediated by perirhinal cortex
a memory deficiency caused by lack of thiamine- seen in chronic alcoholism
A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less.
lasts. up to 30 seconds or throughout rehearsal
- also known as working memory
last for days to years
- primacy effect is the better recall for items at the beginning of a list.
- the recency effect shows better recall for items at the end of a list
Declarative: Episodic memory
detailed autobiography memories
Declarative: Semantic memory
Non-declarative: skill learning
learning to perform a task requiring motor coordination
repetition priming a change in stimulus processing due to prior exposure to the stimulus
Non-declarative: associative learning
the association of two stimuli or of a stimulus and a response
serial position effect
sensory information is passed into short-term memory
- for recalling pictures the right prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal cortex in both hemispheres are activated
- for recalling words the left prefrontal cortex and the left parahippocampal cortex are activated
short term memory information is transferred into long-term storage
-permanent storage of information tends to occur in the regions where it was processed
stored information is used
- retrieval from LTM makes the memory trace plastic again and subject to updating and strengthening before reconsolidation
Treatment for PTSD
treatments that block chemicals acting on the basolateral amygdala may reduce the effect of emotion on memories.
synaptic changes as a result of learning
alteration in the synapses were the basis for learning.
-synaptic changes can be measured physiologically and may be presynaptic, postsynaptic or both
-structural changes at the synapse may provide long-term storage
-training might also lead to synaptic reorganization
Benefits of enriched conditions in lab animals
lab animals living in a complex environment demonstrated biochemical and anatomical brain changes different from those living in simpler environments
- animals housed in enriched environments compared to those in impoverished developed heavier, thicker cortex, enhanced cholinergic activity, had more dendritic branches with more dendritic spines suggesting more synapses
Research with Aplysia
used to study plastic synaptic changes in neural circuits
advantages of woking with aplysia:
- fewer nerve cells
- can create detailed circuit maps for particular behaviors
- little variation between individuals
a stable and enduring increase in the effectiveness pf synapses.
- LTP may be one part of memory formation
- correlational observations: time course of LTP is similar to memory formation
- somatic intervention experiments: pharmacological treatments that block LTP impair learning
- Behavioral intervention experiments: training an animal in a memory task can induce LTP
- adult neurogenesis in the brain occurs primarily in the dentate gyrus and showed enhanced LTP
Sets with similar terms
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Learning and Memory
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ch 13 the biology of learning and memory
Other sets by this creator
Bio Psych test 4 (Ch. 19)
Bio Psych test 4 (ch. 16)
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Biological Psych test 3 (ch. 14)
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