Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Study Guide- Unit 1 Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
Terms in this set (13)
What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors? Give examples of each.
Biotic factors are the living components. Examples are plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, and protists. Abiotic factors are the non-living components such as sunlight, water, soil, sand, rocks, air, etc.
What is an ecosystem?
An ecosystem is composed of all biotic and abiotic factors. These factors are interrelated and enable an ecosystem to maintain homeostasis.
What is the difference between a population and a community?
Populations are composed of a group of the same species that live in a specific area and can breed with each other. A community consists of multiple species that live together in a specific area.
Know what homeostasis is, the difference between negative feedback loops and positive feedback loops, and an example of each.
Homeostasis is the ability to maintain balance within a system. Homeostasis is maintained through feedback loops. A positive feedback loop amplifies the reaction in order to achieve stability. An example of a positive feedback loop would be the decomposition of plants which l to greater production of plants in ecosystems, milk production in mammals, and fruit ripening.
Negative feedback loops reduce the reaction in order to maintain stability. An example would be thermoregulation in organisms, blood sugar levels in organisms, and predator-prey relationships in ecosystems.
Know the ecological relationships among organisms (example: mutualism, predation, commensalism, etc)
Mutualism is an interaction between organisms of 2 different species where both organisms benefit from the relationship. An example would be a bee and a flower.
Commensalism is a relationship between 2 different organisms where one organism benefits and the other is not harmed or benefitted from the relationship. An example would be egret birds that perch on herding animals and eat the insects that are stirred up by the animals' hooves.
Predator-prey relationships are interactions where one organism is hunted and killed as food by another organism. An example would be lions and antelope.
Parasitism is a relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed. An example would be a tick (parasite) and a dog (the host).
Know where the ultimate source of energy for an ecosystem comes from and why there are more producers than consumers in an ecosystem.
The ultimate source of energy is the sun. There are more producers than consumers because producers have an unlimited source of energy from the sun. Consumers are only receiving a fraction (10%) of energy from the food they eat.
Know the process plants use to make glucose (what is needed and what is produced).
Producers go through the process of photosynthesis in order to make glucose. They require sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide in order to make glucose and oxygen.
Know how a food chain/ web works:
Plant 🡪worm 🡪blue jay🡪hawk
In which direction does energy flow?
What receives the least amount of energy?
What receives the most amount of energy?
Who is the producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer?
Who eats what?
Are nutrients recycled? Explain why or why not.
Why is energy lost as we move through trophic levels (from organism to organism)?
Energy moves in the same direction as the arrows or from the bottom trophic levels to the top. The least amount of energy is received by the hawk or tertiary consumer. The plant or producer receives the most amount of energy. The producer is the plant, the primary consumer is the worm, the secondary consumer is the blue jay and the tertiary consumer is the hawk. The hawk eats the blue jay; the blue jay eats the worm; the worm eats the plants. Nutrients are recycled in an ecosystem with the help of decomposers (bacteria and fungi) who break down organic and inorganic material so it can be reused. Energy is lost in the form of heat through cellular respiration (the process of making ATP or energy). Heat is an unusable form of energy so it can't be recycled in the ecosystem.
Know the difference between invasive, non-invasive, and native species. Explain how native species increase biodiversity and give an example using an example from class.
Invasive species are organisms introduced into a non-native environment and have a negative effect on the ecosystem. They do not foster healthy relationships between other biotic factors in an ecosystem.
Non-invasive are species that do not have a negative impact on the environment. Native species are organisms that are from and thrive in a particular ecosystem. They have coexisted with other organisms and have fostered positive, healthy relationships that enable biodiversity to thrive.
Native species increase biodiversity through their multiple relationships with other living things. For example, oak trees support over 500 species of caterpillars which serve as multiple food sources for many different birds. Non-native Gingko trees, on the other hand, only support 1 species of caterpillar.
What causes a change in population growth?
Changes in the population are due to birth and death rates, immigration and emigration, and density-dependent and density-independent factors.
What is the difference between density-dependent factors and density-independent factors? Give an example of each.
Density independent factors are factors that affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population size. Examples would be natural disasters, wild fires, drought, famine, pollution, global warming, and human interference.
Density-dependent factors are factors that regulate population growth depending on the size of the population. Factors include the availability of food/resources, predation, disease, and migration.
What is a niche and why can't organisms occupy the same niche? Explain how niche partitioning increases biodiversity. Understand the study Dr. Pringle performed in Africa with the three herbivores.
A niche is a role an organism plays in an ecosystem putting into consideration all of the resources at its disposal. It includes everything from the food they eat to where they live. Organisms can't occupy the same exact niche because they would compete for resources until one population was brought to the brink of extinction.
Different populations with seemingly similar niches use resources within an area differently in order to reduce competition and coexist. This gives them different realized niches even though their fundamental niche is similar.
What type of graph is this:
survivorship curve graph
Other sets by this creator
APES UNIT 5 TEST
Vietnam and Civil Rights Test
Biology - Cellular Transport
Unit 2-Part 3-Photosynthesis
Recommended textbook solutions
Human Resource Management
John David Jackson, Patricia Meglich, Robert Mathis, Sean Valentine
Clinical Reasoning Cases in Nursing
Julie S Snyder, Mariann M Harding
Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine