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Psychology Unit 7
Terms in this set (67)
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error- prone- use of heuristics.
The loss of memory.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness) we presume such events are common.
Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating.
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
The processing of information into the memory system-for example by extracting meaning.
Memory of facts and ecperiences that one can consciously know and "declare". Also called declarative memory.
The inability to see a problem form a new perspective, by employing a different mental set.
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
The way an issue is posed; how an issue is this can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithm.
A neural center that is located in the Limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Retention independent of conscious recollection. Also called Nondeclarative or procedural memory.
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences.
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
In language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix).
The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
The tendency to be more confident than correct- to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
The processing of many aspects of a problems simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to this provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to this bird, such as a robin.
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank-test.
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning.
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Attributing to the wrong source of an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Also called Misattribution. This along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or patience.
The retention of encoded information over time.
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-"go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs.
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.
The encoding of picture images.
A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
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