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Courts Exam 2
Terms in this set (150)
Which of the following is billed as the world's largest law firm?
US Department of Justice
The US Constitution specifies that the President of the United States has the power to nominate judges with the advice and consent of the:
Each of the following are actors in "law enforcement" EXCEPT:
Each of the following are actors in "corrections" EXCEPT:
Which amendment provides for the right to a speedy and public trial?
Which US Supreme Court decisions acknowledged a defendant's right to self-representation?
Faretta v California
Most members of the courtroom work group are essentially part of what class?
The middle class
The case of Thurman v Torrington involved what crime?
Of the following options, which offenses are felony defendants most likely to be charged with?
Which of the following is a serious problem that public attorneys face in dealing with their clients?
All of these are serious problems
Which types of organizations are involved in the victims' rights movement?
A discretionary decision based on decision makers' values and attitudes reflects:
Which concept is directly related to the reality that the criminal courthouse is not a single organization but rather a collection of separate institutions that gather in a common workplace?
What are victim/witness assistance programs designed to do?
Help navigate the court process
Which form of judicial selection requires judges to face a retention ballot after a short time in office?
What is the title of the head of the Department of Justice?
The US Attorney General
Which system is likely to produce judges who have held political office?
The election system
Many defendants view the public defender as similar to what other courtroom actor?
The three major ways of providing indigents with court appointed attorneys are: (1) assigned counsel, (2) contract systems, and (3) public defender. Which of the following is true about these differing ways of providing indigents with court appointed attorneys?
Studies find no major difference between these 3 systems in results achieved
Which of the following courtroom actors work mostly behind the scenes?
How are newcomers to a courtroom taught formal requirements of the job and informal rules of behavior?
The office of the prosecutor is in which branch of government?
Concerning ___, victims are unlikely to appear in sentencing
Law in action
Which of the following is NOT a requirement of victim compensation fund programs?
Not victims living in the same household as the offender are ineligible
The Speedy trial act of 1974 (amended in 1979) allows how many days from indictment to trial?
Assembly-line justice, discretion and the courtroom work group are all concepts used to explain what?
The difference between law in action and law on books
In what decision did the US Supreme Court rule that a defendant in a nonfelony case is guaranteed the right to legal counsel, paid by the state if necessary, only in cases that actually lead to imprisonment, not in all cases in which imprisonment is a potential penalty?
Scott v Illinois
The Speedy Trial Act of 1974 (amended in 1979) allows how many days from arrest to indictment in federal courts?
Each of the following are actors in "court personnel" EXCEPT:
Each of the following states allows for nonpartisan election in the high court of last resort EXCEPT:
When prosecutors are not acting as the government's advocate in some judicial phase of the criminal justice process, which kind of immunity do they enjoy?
Concerning __, VRA provides that victims may be heard and may submit a statement during sentencing
Law on the books
In which case did the US Supreme Court announce that candidates for judicial office are free to announce their views on key issues?
Republican part v White
The text refers to rewards as a:
What do senators influence through senatorial courtesy?
Federal judicial selections
Felony defendants are most likely to be in which rough age bracket?
Younger than 35
The US Constitution specifies that all Article III federal judges are to be chosen by which form of selection?
The problems in prosecuting and convicting Barker indicate ___is often needed in interpreting the law.
According to Sally Kenney (2012), what does having women on the bench add to the institution?
The ___ is the third highest ranking official in the Justice Department
What is a common practice in large courts?
Not bail shopping
The jury in the Ravi case decided that the evidence ___ the crime.
In which of the following cases was it decided that defendants have the right to self-representation?
Faretta v California
In which of the following cases was it decided that indigent defendants in a noncapital case in state court have no right to appointed counsel?
Betts v Brady
The ___ is responsible for transporting detained defendants from the jail to the courthouse
Which of the following is NOT a member of the courtroom work group?
When they first begin working as prosecutors, rookie assistant attorneys learn important unwritten rules, legal practices, and appropriate penalties:
By asking questions of experienced prosecutors, court clerks, and police officers
In regard to ineffective assistance of counsel, appellate courts must reverse only if the proceedings were fundamentally unfair and the outcome would have been ___ if counsel has not been ineffective.
Federal judges are appointed for how long?
Which of the following is the primary reason for high turnover among assistant district attorneys?
What is one of the most frustrating aspects of being a judge?
Heavy caseloads and corresponding administrative problems
Which of the following statements is true regarding the US Supreme Court decision in Gideon v Wainwright?
The court declared that lawyers in criminal courts are necessities not lux
Large prosecutors' offices generally employ which type of prosecution?
Most of what we know about the ordeal of testifying in court comes from research on victims of:
Most state speedy trial laws are designed to protect:
What is it called when the courthouse justice has the authority to make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts?
With regard to judicial elections, the US Supreme Court has ruled that:
Judges cannot be elected in ways that place minority candidates at an unfair disadvantage
Victims and witnesses face frustration in coping with the court process:
But overall exhibit surprising support for the system
Small prosecutors' offices generally employ which type of prosecution?
In Barker v Wingo the court held that the right to a speedy trial
Is a relative, not an absolute right
Which of the following is the exclusive domain of the prosecutor?
Compared to the average citizen a felony defendant is more likely to be
All of these answers are correct
An increasing number of federal vacancies have been filled by women since whose presidency?
Which term means allegations of judicial wrongdoing?
Prior relationships are most notable in what kind of crime?
At which of the following stages in the criminal justice process is an indigent defendant provided counsel paid by the government?
Not when filing a discretionary appeal
The claim that increasing plea bargains and declining trials are a recent phenomenon is a weakness of what explanation?
Not none of these is correct
Maverick defense attorneys
Are seldom to negotiate the most lenient sentences
Which US Supreme Court decision limited the right of nonfelony defendants to have court-appointed counsel?
Argersinger v Hamlin
The Solicitor General's office generally requests Supreme Court review only in cases with a high degree of significance and in which:
The government has a reasonable legal argument
Which issue related to the right to counsel did Padilla v Kentucky involve?
Ineffective assistance to counsel
Most victim compensation programs:
Provide for recovery of medical expenses and some lost wages
Which annual event focuses on the plight of crime victims?
National Crime Victims Week
Which of the following decisions is the exclusive domain of the prosecutor?
The text refers to sanctions as a:
The term pro bono means that:
Attorneys work free of charge
In carrying out responsibilities in court, judges mainly react to the work of prosecutors and
How many statutory responsibilities do US Attorneys have?
In what case was it determined that a district attorney's office may not be held liable under Section 1983 for failure to train prosecutors based on a single Brady violation?
Connick v Thompson
A problem common to all organizations, courts included, is the need to break in new members, a process known as
At which of the following stages in the criminal justice process is an indigent defendant not guaranteed counsel paid for by the government?
Which 13th-century document attempted to address the problem of delay in justice?
The role of the prosecutor involves two major characteristics: decentralization and what else?
Which standard was applied in the Court's most significant holding in 1984 as the proper criterion to be applied in making a determinization of the ineffectiveness of counsel?
An "objective standard of reasonableness"
Merit selection is commonly referred to as the:
Missouri Bar Plan
Which type of law do most lawyers practice?
The right to a speedy trial
Is a relative not an absolute right
The most important victim characteristic that influences case processing is the victim's
Relationship with offender
The ___ is the most important member of the work group
All states have altered judicial selection techniques in recent years have adopted some form of:
Which of the following court participants is supposed to stand at the center of the criminal court drama?
An advantage to the public defender system is that:
It likely provides more experienced counsel
US attorneys serve
At discretion of the president
Researchers find that attempts by supervisors to counsel the work of assistant district attorneys tend to
Erode the morale of the office
What is the title given to the state's chief legal officer?
What is one of the most important tasks of defense attorneys
A recent study of judicial voting in thousands of cases showed that in most areas of law the decisions of female and male judges
Are rarely different
Which of the following is NOT a major subcomponent of discretion?
Which framework maintains that sentencing decisions are made by blameworthiness, protection of the community, and the practical constraints and consequences of the sentencing decisions?
Focal concerns theory
The court case Barker v Wingo is concerned with what constitutional guarantee?
The right to a speedy trial
Who is the prosecutor's client?
Who is the record keeper for the court, often responsible for summoning potential jurors?
Clerk of court
Which method of providing legal representation for indigent defendants is the most common in large cities?
The role of prosecutor involves each of the following EXCEPT:
Complete freedom from civil liability is known as:
Less than ___ of victims and witnesses said they were dissatisfied with how their cases was handled
The right to self-representation is also referred to by the Latin term
The three most prominent defendant characteristics used in the discussion of crime and crime policy are:
Sex, poverty, and race
Members of the courtroom workgroup become frustrated when victims and witnesses
All of these answers are correct
The FBI, DEA, US Marshals Service and the Federal Bureau of Prisons are all part of which entity?
Department of Justice
Prosecutors consider both legal and extra-legal focal concerns when making a charging decision. Which of the following is an extra-legal focal concern?
Socioeconomic status of freedom
The first victim compensation program in the United States began in which state?
What is the term for protected statements between an attorney and client?
Which of the following US Supreme Court decisions held that defendants have the right to court-appointed counsel during custodial interrogations?
Miranda v Arizona
Which of the following is among the ethical issues faced by prosecutors?
All of these answers are among ethical issues faced by prosecutors
The American Bar Association recommends that all felony cases reach disposition within
One year of filing
Which participants in the criminal justice system have traditionally been forgotten?
Victims and witnesses
What happens with most complaints about attorney misconduct?
They are dismissed due to insufficient evidence
The law on the books approach to delay focus on:
Resources and procedures
Obtaining clients is only half of the problem facing private attorneys who represent criminal clients. The second half is:
Who are US attorneys appointed by?
Although a prosecutor may believe that a given defendant violated the law, s/he may decide against moving forward with prosecution based on a belief that no jury would come back with a guilty verdict. This represents a discretionary decision based on:
The public defender system was started where in 1914?
Felony defendants are most likely to be:
In which of the following cases was it decided that indigent felony defendants in federal court are entitled to court-appointed counsel?
Johnson v Zerbst
Which of the following statements is true about judicial conduct commissions?
None of these are true about judicial conduct commission
In which case did the Supreme Court rule that prosecutors enjoy only qualified immunity from civil lawsuits for actions taken during criminal investigations and statements made during news conferences?
Buckley v Fitzsimmons
In which of the following cases was it decided that juveniles are covered by the sixth amendment's right to counsel?
In re gualt
Which of the following is NOT a term used to refer to chief prosecution?
If the proceedings went to trial who would conduct the trial?
Which state was the first to adopt a modern and practical system for disciplining its judges?
A judge who accepts a guilty plea agreement reached by the defense attorney and the prosecutor provides an example of:
Which form of judicial selection is supported as a way to sift out unqualified applicants?
Prosecutors spend most of their time working with members of what group?
The courtroom work group
Which method of providing legal representation for indigent defendants has been found to violate the fifth and sixth amendments to the US Constitution by at least one state supreme court?
Because of numerous sanctions that may be applied to defense attorneys they are forced to take which kind of posture?
Which of the following statements is FALSE about criminal defense attorneys?
Most have a regular clientele
Which of the following is NOT a name given to the prosecutor?
What is the lack of cooperation by victims and witnesses in low-income, high crime neighborhoods often called?
Of the following who is the only official who works closely with police officers?
What happened to three Iowa Supreme Court justices who ruled that a state law banning same-sex marriage violated the state constitution?
Not they were impeached
Argersinger v Hamlin (1972) affected what kind of criminal defendants
The method by which defense attorneys seek to reach the best possible solution for their clients is directly related to their relationships with other members of:
The courtroom work group
Which amendment provides the right to counsel?
In which case did the US Supreme Court hold that indigent defendants charged with a felony are entitled to the service of a lawyer paid for by the government?
Gideon v Wainwright
Various researchers have found that the passage of speedy trial laws in many states has led to
Little change in disposition time
Which statements consist of written or oral information about the impact of crime on the victim and the victim's family?
Victim impact statements
Which of the following is a function of legal cynicism?
Lack of cooperation
What is the surname of the first Hispanic justice appointed the US Supreme Court?
Which concept stresses the importance of the patterned interactions of judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys?
The assembly-line justice concept
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