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ch 14 management of imaging personnel radiation dose during diagnostic x-ray procedures
Terms in this set (41)
what imaging procedures increase radiographers risk of exposure because of scatter radiation and create the most dose?
- general fluoro
- interventional procedures that employ high level control fluoroscopy
- mobile exams
- c-arm fluoroscopy
- special procedures
Annual occupational effective dose limit
how do we maintain keeping below the annual occupational dose?
ALARA and supervision of personnel radiation exposure records
EfD does not include
-personal medical exposure
-natural background exposure
10 x persons age
Cumulative EfD limit
For whole body
-Not including medical or background radiation
-Accounts for both internal and external exposure or equivalent doses
what is the annual limit for members of the general population for continuous or frequent exposure from artificial sources other than medical irradiation and natural background radiation ?
infrequent annual exposure to general public is
why is there an allowance of larger EqD for radiation workers
- workforce in radiation related jobs is small when compared with the population as a whole
- can be larger than population without alteration in GSD
although the radiographer and other diagnostic imaging personnel are allowed to absorb more radiation, the EqD received must be minimized whenever possible to reduce the potential for
somatic or genetic damage
whenever applicable applying the basic principles of ALARA includes?
short time, long distance, always shield, collimate
we should avoid repeat imaging because not only does it increase pt dose but it increases? where should the radiographer stand when having to hold a part for. imaging? the scattered x-ray intensity is generally approximately ___ of the intensity of the primary x-ray beam when doing this?
- occupational dose
- at a 90 degree angle to primary x-ray beam at a distance of 1 m
poses the greatest occupational hazard in diagnostic radiography? use of what significantly reduces this dose?
- scatter radiation
- device or technique
without proper filtration what could happen in regards to the radiographer?
the low energy photons wouldn't be attenuated and can scatter, not only hitting the patients but also the radiographer
lead aprons protect the personnel from what? they are available in what thicknesses? higher lead equivalency = ____ = ___? which style affords the best protection? what is the required size (minimum)? recommended? what is the required size (minimum) for fluoro?
- secondary radiation (scatter and leakage)
- .25mm, .5mm, and 1mm
- more protection; heavier
- wrap around
what are the technique factors that we should set to give us less scatter radiation and smaller radiographic exposure?
high kVp, low mAs
radiographers should ____ repeats; never stand where when taking an x-ray to restrain a patient? if restraint by people is necessary we should select the? who are never permitted to assist in holding a pt?
minimize; in the primary beam; non occupationally exposed person wearing the appropriate protective devices; students and pregnant women
imaging department protocol states that a woman should be able to
continue performing duties without interruption of employment, follow policies regarding pregnancy related radiation, and there is a voluntary declaration of pregnancy where the facility recognizes the pregnancy
EqD to the embryo-fetus monthly is? entire gestation? this EqD limit is designed to significantly restrict the total lifetime risk of? what is given separately each month?
.5mSv, 5mSv; luekemia and other malignancies in persons exposed in utero; report that tracks exposure of worker and fetus
maternity protective aprons consist of what mm lead?
.5 with a .5mm lead running across totaling 1mm lead equivalent
occupational exposure can be reduced by using what 3 cardinal principals?
- decreased time in room
- increased distance
- always shield
the amount of radiation a worker receives is ___ to the length of time for which the individual is in the path of ionizing radiation?
what is the most effective means of protection of occupational workers from ionizing radiation?
expresses the relationship between distance and intensity of radiation and governs the dose received? this law states that the intensity of radiation is _____ to the square of the distance from the source? Therefore ____ distance = ___ intensity
inverse square law; indirectly proportional; increased, decreased
may be used to provide protection from radiation? what are the most common materials used for structural protective barriers? accessory devices such as aprons, gloves, protective eyewear, and thyroid shields are made of ____? effectiveness of shielding material depends on their ___, ___, and ___?
- protective shielding
- lead and concrete
- lead impregnated vinyl
- atomic number, density, thickness
who determines the exact protection requirements for a particular imaging facility
- medical physicist
What is the purpose of a primary protective barrier? where are they usually located? consist of ___mm lead? extends ___m from the floor of the x-ray room when the X-ray tube is __m from the wall in question
- prevent direct radiation from reaching personnel
- perpendicular to line of primary x-ray beam
- 1.6mm (1/16")
- 1.5-2.1 m (5-7ft)
what is the purpose of a secondary protective barrier? where is it usually located? should overlap the primary protective barrier by ___ cm (___)"? consists of ___mm (__/__") lead
- protects against secondary radiation
- wall or barrier never struck
- 1.27cm (1/2")
- .8mm (1/32")
the observation window barrier typically consists of ___ mm lead equivalent?
exposure to the radiographer will not exceed a maximum of ___ per week? ___ in a well designed facility
the exposure cord must be
short enough that the exposure switch can be operated only when the radiographer is completely behind the control-booth barrier
what is the purpose of the control booth barrier? where is it usually located? must extend ___ m upward and be permanently secured to the floor. Diagnostic x-rays should scatter a minimum of ___ times before reaching any area behind this barrier
- protect radiographer from secondary radiation
- x-ray room housing permanent or non portable radiographic equipment
clear lead -acrylic secondary protective barrier contains clear lead acrylic material impregnated with approximately ____% lead by weight? permits ___ view, allowing diagnostic imaging personnel to observe pt more completely?
modular x-ray barriers are ___ proof
can extend ____ m upward from the floor
available in lead equivalency from __ to ___mm
- 2.1 m
- .3 to 2mm
clear lead overhead protective barrier can be used as overhead x-ray barrier to provide ___ during special procedures and cardiac catheterization? shielding typically offers ___mm lead equivalency protection
- open view
apron and thyroid shield weight is ___?
glasses are ___
anything else (gloves, curtain, Bucky slot shielding device) is ___?
apron garments are impregnated with
do not touch the ___ or ___ cables while an exposure is in process?
- tube housing or high tension cables
provide fluoroscopic imaging personnel with the best radiation protection opportunity allowing them to remain outside of fluoroscopic room at control console until needed?
remote control fluoroscopic systems
must automatically cover the Bucky slot opening in the side of the x-ray table during a standard fluoroscopic exam when the Bucky tray is positioned at the foot end of the table and protects radiologist and radiographer at what level?
- Bucky slot shielding device
what should be assigned to each mobile unit? for mobile x-ray units that are nonremote controlled, the cord leading to the exposure switch must be long enough for the radiographer to stand how far away?
- protective apron
- 6 ft or 2m
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