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Essential People - Units 7-10
Terms in this set (94)
Corps of Discovery
Group of explorers led by Lewis and Clark that crossed the new Louisiana Purchase all the way to the Pacific Ocean. They tried to establish peaceful relationships with Native Americans, created maps, and recorded the plants and animals they found.
Native American woman who travelled with Lewis and Clark during their exploration of the Louisiana Purchase. Her services as an interpreter were invaluable.
Native American political leader who, along with his brother The Prophet, organized a campaign to unite the tribes up and down the Mississippi River against White expansion during the early 1800s. His army was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 and he moved to Canada.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican dictator who fought against the Texans in the Texas War for Independence. He was the Mexican commander at the Battles of the Alamo and San Jacinto. Later he led Mexico against the Americans in the Mexican-American War.
Former governor of Tennessee who moved to Texas and led the Texas Revolution, was the president of the Republic of Texas and first Governor of the state once Texas joined the Union. A major city was named in his honor.
James K. Polk
President elected in 1844 who championed westward expansion. He annexed Texas, led the Mexican-American War and negotiated the resolution to the boundary dispute with the United Kingdom over the Pacific Northwest.
The White explorers who travelled throughout the Rocky Mountains and West in the early and mid-1800s. They were essential in the early years of westward expansion because they discovered passes, rivers, and later served as guides for miners, the army, and pioneer who settled the region.
First of the mountain men. He was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and was the first White person to see Yellowstone.
Famous African American mountain man. He lived with the Crow tribe and discovered a pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California.
Nickname for the prospectors who travelled to California during the Gold Rush. Their name is derived from the first year of the migration of such miners.
Group of related Native American tribes who lived in and around the area that is now North and South Dakota. They mounted some of the last and most fierce resistance to White expansion and the reservation system.
Sioux leader during the Indian Wars of the late-1800s. Along with Crazy Horse, he was one of the principle leaders at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Sioux leader during the Indian Wars of the late-1800s. Along with Sitting Bull, he was one of the principle leaders at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Leader of the Nez Perce in the late-1800s. He led his tribe in a failed attempt to escape across the border into Canada where he believed they would have a better chance of being allowed to continue their traditional way of life. His famous surrender message includes the lines, "My heart is sick and sad" and "I will fight no more forever."
A person who worked to end slavery.
Inventor of the cotton gin. He hoped it would help end slavery by replacing slaves. Instead, planters used more slaves to grow more cotton because the machine could remove the seeds more quickly at less cost.
An escaped slave and prolific orator. His autobiography was widely read.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Abolitionist author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin."
A slave who escaped to the North but returned thirteen times to guide other slaves to freedom. Tubman was nicknamed "Moses" and was the most famous conductor on the Underground Railroad. She also worked for women's rights and was a spy for the North during the Civil War.
Henry Ward Beecher
An American Congregationalist minister social reformer, and speaker, known for his support of the abolition of slavery, and his emphasis on God's love.
An American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831, that resulted in 60 white deaths and at least 100 black deaths, the largest number of fatalities to occur in one uprising prior to the American Civil War in the Southern United States.
An African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist. Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, Ulster County, New York, but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826. Her best-known speech became widely known during the Civil War by the title "Ain't I a Woman?"
William Lloyd Garrison
White abolitionist who published "The Liberator."
A nickname given to a group of pro-slavery men who went to Kansas to try to terrorize the people there who were opposed to slavery.
Senator from Massachusetts. He was opposed to slavery but more than anything worked to preserve the Union and prevent Southern secession. Along with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun he helped broker the Compromise of 1850.
Free Soil Party
A political party that existed during the 1850s. They believed that slavery should not be permitted in the territories of the West saying, "Free Men on Free Soil." Most Free Soilers eventually joined the Republican Party.
Congressman from Kentucky who ran many times but never won the presidency. He is remembered as one of the three great dealmakers of the early 1800s who helped prevent civil war over slavery by negotiating the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850.
A fierce abolitionist who moved to Kansas with his family. He led the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre and later led an attack on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry in the hope of leading a slave rebellion that would bring about the end of slavery. He was hated by Southerners but became a martyr for the abolitionist cause.
John C. Calhoun
Senator from South Carolina. In the decades before the Civil War he was the strongest voice for states' rights and defender of slavery. Along with Henry Clay and Daniel Webster he helped broker the Compromise of 1850.
A political party founded in the 1850s which initially opposed the expansion of slavery into the territories of the West. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president. Eventually the party worked to end slavery altogether.
Senator from Illinois. He was opposed to slavery but wanted to preserve the Union. He believed that the best way was to let the people of each new state decide for themselves if slavery would be permitted. This idea, popular sovereignty is most strongly associated with Douglas.
Senator from Massachusetts, abolitionist, and leader of the Radical Republicans who advocated for immediate abolition.
President of the Confederacy. Usually regarded as an ineffective wartime leader.
Robert E. Lee
Brilliant general from Virginia who led the assault on John Brown at Harper's Ferry and later led the Confederate armies during the Civil War. His surrender to Ulysses S. Grant ended the war.
The Supreme Court Chief Justice who wrote the Dred Scott decision
General who led the Union army at the start of the war. He infuriated Lincoln with his unwillingness to lead his troops into battle. Eventually Lincoln fired him.
Nurse and founder of the American Red Cross.
Ulysses S. Grant
General who led the Union armies at the end of the war. He won the Battle of Vicksburg and Lincoln promoted him to commander of all of the Union Armies. He accepted Lee's surrender at the end of the war and later was elected president. Although honest, he was a poor politician. His administration was weakened by the Crédit Mobilier Scandal.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Northern general who led his army through the South destroying everything he could - farms, railroads, etc. - in an effort to prevent the South from having the means of waging war.
Sometimes called the Peace Democrats, they were Northerners who wanted to end the war and make a peace treaty that allowed the South to secede.
Members of the Republican Party who were strong abolitionists.
Vice President who became President when Lincoln was assassinated. He was from Tennessee and tried to carry out Lincoln's vision for a forgiving Reconstruction. He was opposed by the Radical Republicans in Congress, impeached but no convicted, and was ineffective.
A nickname for people from the North who came to the South after the war to help with Reconstruction. The name comes from the thick fabric suitcases they carried. In the South, "carpetbagger" is an insult since it refers to an outsider who shows up and tries to tell you how you should live.
The government organization created to help former slaves transition to free life after the war. They are especially remembered for setting up and running schools.
Ku Klux Klan
A White terrorist organization that was formed immediately after the Civil War to counter Northern reconstruction efforts. They attacked African Americans and Republicans. They began to die out as Reconstruction ended, but later became popular again in the 1920s and were an important political force through the 1960s.
White Democrats in the South who made it was their mission to restore as much of the antebellum social order as possible, including eliminating voting and civil rights for African Americans and establishing the Jim Crow system of segregation.
When farmers pay to live and grow food on someone else's land.
American business leader who made a fortune in the shipping and railroad business in the 1800s. Known as the Commodore, he owned the New York Central Railroad and built New York City's Grand Central Terminal.
Industrialist who monopolized the steel industry.
American financier. He was so wealthy he bailed out the U.S. government during financial crisis.
American financier who purchased Carnegie Steel. His businesses were the target of antitrust lawsuits.
John D. Rockefeller
American industrialist who dominating the oil business. He was the richest man in America.
William "Boss" Tweed
Famous boss of the Tammany Hall political machine.
Nickname for Boss Tweed's political machine in New York City.
Knights of Labor
Early successful union formed by Uriah Stephens. They admitted all wage earners including African Americans and women. They grew in popularity but weakened after the Haymarket Square incident in 1886.
Founder of the American Federation of Labor
American Federation of Labor
Labor union founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886. It was formed by joining smaller unions of skilled workers.
Socialist union leader. He led the Pullman strike and ran unsuccessfully for president as a Socialist Party candidate.
Industrial Workers of the World
Socialist political party led by Big Bill Haywood. Nicknamed the Wobblies, they advocated violent overthrow of the government and capitalist system.
William Howard Taft
Republican president who succeeded Roosevelt. He had previously served as Governor of the Philippines. His presidency did not go well and he lost his bid for reelection after Roosevelt ran as an independent. He later served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
The name for the immigrants who arrived in the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They were different from the "Old Immigrants" in that they were often from Southern and Eastern Europe, were Catholic, Orthodox Christian or Jewish instead of Protestant. Unlike earlier groups of immigrants, they were also often poor and uneducated with few skills.
Inventor of a safe electric elevator. His invention made skyscrapers possible.
Prolific American inventor. His creations included the electric lightbulb, phonograph (record player) and movie camera.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone and founder of the various Bell Telephone Companies.
Frederick Law Olmsted
Champion of the City Beautiful Movement and designer of many famous city parks including Central Park in New York City.
Turn of the century social reformer and journalist. She invented the advice column for newspapers.
American newspaper publisher who helped pioneer the style of yellow journalism. His primary rival was William Randolph Hearst.
William Randolph Hearst
American newspaper publisher who helped pioneer the style of yellow journalism. His primary rival was Joseph Pulitzer.
A journalist at the turn of the century who research and published stories and books uncovering political or business scandal. The term was coined by President Theodore Roosevelt.
Muckraker and author of The Same of the Cities about corruption in city governments.
Muckraker and author of a tell-all book about John D. Rockefeller and the rise of Standard Oil.
Muckraker, photographer and author of the book How the Other Half Lives about the life in city slums.
Muckraker who wrote about corruption in New York government and business and traveled around the world in 72 days.
Muckraker and author of The Jungle about working and sanitary conditions in meat packing plants in Chicago at the turn of the century.
A legislative body for a city. Sometimes called a council, this form of government was a progressive reform and limited the influence of corrupt political machines by allowing voters to select city leaders.
A professional selected by a city government who executes policy. This was a progressive reform and sought to separate the decision to spend public money from the awarding of contracts, thus reducing corruption.
Political party formed in the late 1800s out of the Grange Movement. They advocated for the free coinage of silver, a graduated income tax and government regulation of business. Their leader was William Jennings Bryan. Eventually their members mostly joined the Democratic Party.
William Jennings Bryan
Populist, Progressive, and later democratic leader who championed the rights of farmers. His "Cross of Gold" speech catapulted him to national fame. He ran four times for president but never won.
Republican President first elected in 1896. He defeated William Jennings Bryan. Reelected in 1900, he led the nation through the Spanish-American War, but was assassinated.
Groups of people at the turn of the century interested in making change in society, business and government. They were often urban, northeastern, educated, middle class, and protestant.
Founder of the Settlement House movement.
Advocate for education reform at the turn of the century. He championed the development of normal schools, which were colleges that prepared future teachers.
Robert La Follette
Progressive governor of Wisconsin. He led the way in promoting many reforms in state government.
Champion of birth control in the early 1900s.
Susan B. Anthony
Early champion of women's suffrage. She headed the NAWSA. She was honored when a silver dollar coin was minted in 1979 with her likeness.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Early champion of women's suffrage. She cofounded a group with Susan B. Anthony.
Early champion of women's suffrage. Her organization merged with that of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton's to form the NAWSA.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Major organization working for women's suffrage. It was led first by Susan B. Anthony and later by Carrie Chapman Catt.
Advocate for women's suffrage in the early 1900s. She founded the National Women's Party and used more aggressive tactics to publicize the movement.
National Woman's Party (NWP)
Organization founded by Alice Paul in 1916 to work for women's suffrage. They used more aggressive tactics to spread their message.
Carrie Chapman Catt
Leader of the NAWSA in the early 1900s. She succeeded Susan B. Anthony and saw the ratification of the 19th Amendment.
Bull Moose Party
Nickname for the independent party that nominated former president Roosevelt in 1912 after he lost his bid for the Republican nomination.
Democratic president from New Jersey. He was president of Princeton University and governor of New Jersey. He defeated Roosevelt and Taft to win the presidency in 1912 and was president during World War One.
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