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11 - Academic Vocabulary
Terms in this set (136)
Annex ~ Although the United States made no move to annex or otherwise control Hawaii, American policy consistently sought to keep other nations from extending their influence over the islands.
verb ~ to add to an area of land or country, in this case by force
Conflate ~ Missionaries conflated Christian teaching with American virtues, and began to spread both gospels with zeal.
verb ~ to combine two or more separate things
Contiguous ~ America's first real foray into acquiring territory outside of what we now call the contiguous United States was Alaska.
adjective ~ sharing a common border; touching
Credo ~ The anti-imperialists opposed expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for "consent of the governed."
noun ~ statement of basic belief
Decry ~ Only if gold were found, newspaper editors decried at the time, would the secretive purchase be justified.
verb ~ express strong disapproval of
Emergence ~ In this view, American exceptionalism stems from its emergence from the American Revolution, becoming what political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset called "the first new nation" and developing a uniquely American ideology based on liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, and the rule of We the People.
noun ~ the act of coming out into view
Encroachment ~ He describes this event as an, "aggressive encroachment of one people upon the territory of another, resulting in the subjugation of that people to alien rule."
noun ~ taking away a person's territory, rights, etc
Foray ~ America's first real foray into acquiring territory outside of what we now call the contiguous United States was Alaska.
noun ~ a sudden short attack into enemy territory to obtain something
Gobble ~ The late-1800s were a time of colonialism, when the European powers seemed bent on gobbling up all the underdeveloped areas of the world and turning them into colonies for military, commercial or political purposes.
verb ~ to eat hungrily, to seize eagerly
Humanitarian ~ They did not oppose expansion on commercial, constitutional, religious, or humanitarian grounds, rather, they believed that the annexation and administration of third-world tropical areas would mean the abandonment of American ideals of self-government and isolation—ideals expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence.
adjective ~ involved in or connected with improving people's lives and reducing suffering
Imperialism ~ The combination of these attitudes and other factors led the United States toward imperialism.
noun ~ a policy of extending a country's power and influence over foreign countries
Imperialistic ~ Editors of magazines such as Harper's Weekly supported an imperialistic stance as the democratic responsibility of the United States.
adjective ~ of a powerful country gaining control over weaker countries
Indigenous ~ As was the case elsewhere in the American borderlands, Alaska's industrial development wreaked havoc on the region's indigenous and Russian cultures.
adjective ~ originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native.
Individualism ~ In this view, American exceptionalism stems from its emergence from the American Revolution, becoming what political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset called "the first new nation" and developing a uniquely American ideology based on liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, and the rule of We the People.
noun ~ the idea that each person should think and act independently rather than depending on others
Inherently ~ American Exceptionalism is the theory that the United States is inherently different from other nations.
adverb ~ in a permanent, essential, or characteristic way
Isthmus ~ Finally, Mahan urged the future construction of a canal across the isthmus of Central America, which would decrease by two-thirds the time and power required to move the new navy from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans.
noun ~ a narrow strip of land with sea on either side, forming a link between two larger areas of land
Overseas ~ By forging new and stronger ties overseas, the United States could gain access to international markets for export, as well as better deals on the raw materials needed domestically.
adverb ~ in or to a foreign country, especially one across the sea
Pinpoint ~ Pinpointing the actual beginning of American imperialism is difficult.
verb ~ to discover or establish or point out something exactly
Provisional ~ Dole became president of a new provisional government.
adjective ~ something existing now, possibly to be changed later
Racist ~ Clearly, it was a racist idea, but one held by many Europeans and Americans at the time.
adjective ~ showing discrimination or prejudice against another race because they believe that one race is superior to another
Reaffirm ~ ...militarism, an evil from which it has been our glory to be free. We regret that it has become necessary in the land of Washington and Lincoln to reaffirm that all men, of whatever race or color, are entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. We maintain that governments derive their just powers from the...
verb ~ assert once again
Reciprocity ~ In 1875, the United States signed a reciprocity trade treaty with Hawaii that admitted Hawaiian sugar to the United States duty free.
noun ~ behaviour in which two people or groups of people give each other help and advantages
Secretive ~ Only if gold were found, newspaper editors decried at the time, would the secretive purchase be justified.
adjective ~ not wanting others to know, done privately so that others do not know
Somber ~ In the poem, Kipling, the acclaimed author of such classics as The Jungle Book, exhorts the reader to embark upon the enterprise of empire, yet gives somber warning about the costs involved nonetheless.
adjective ~ serious and sad in appearance or feeling:
Wreak ~ As was the case elsewhere in the American borderlands, Alaska's industrial development wreaked havoc on the region's indigenous and Russian cultures.
verb ~ to cause something to happen in a violent way
Atrocity ~ Under the rule of the American military, the Philippines remained a war zone with terrible atrocities committed by American troops against Filipino soldiers and civilians alike.
noun ~ an extremely wicked or cruel act, typically involving physical violence or injury.
Bolster ~ Although the Army was plagued by inefficiency, disease and disorder, American ground forces were bolstered by volunteers such as Theodore Roosevelt's famous Rough Riders.
verb ~ to support something, or make something stronger
Dispatch ~ Spain did not have any intention to grant Cuban independence and in 1895, the Spanish government dispatched 50,000 troops to the island.
verb ~ send off to a destination or for a purpose
Exterminate ~ One reporter wrote that "if it had not been for the Negro cavalry, the Rough Riders would have been exterminated."
verb ~ kill on a large scale; destroy completely
Hapless ~ American soldiers fought bravely enough to defeat a hapless Spanish army near Santiago.
adjective ~ unfortunate
Hubris ~ Those who oppose imperialism might see the horrors of the Filipino Insurrection as a just punishment for hubris.
noun ~ excessive pride or self-confidence
Inefficient ~ Although the Army was plagued by inefficiency, disease and disorder, American ground forces were bolstered by volunteers such as Theodore Roosevelt's famous Rough Riders.
adjective ~ not producing desired results; wasteful
Inept ~ The Splendid Little War, as the Spanish-American War was later called by Secretary of State John Hay, was handily won by the United States over an inept Spanish army and navy.
adjective ~ not skilled or effective
Influx ~ Among these was Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina, who feared that annexation of the Philippines would lead to an influx of non-White immigrants into the United States.
noun ~ the arrival of a large number of people or things
Kinship ~ Others, however, struggled with American oppression of Cubans and Puerto Ricans, feeling kinship with the black residents of these countries who fell under American rule.
noun ~ relatedness or connection by blood or marriage or adoption
Lustrous ~ In the Philippines, the spoils of war were less lustrous.
adjective ~ shiny
Pervasive ~ Neither the Spanish nor the Americans considered giving the islands their independence, since, with the pervasive racism and cultural stereotyping of the day, they believed the Filipino people were not capable of governing themselves.
adjective ~ spreading widely throughout an area or a group of people.
Provocative ~ American Consul in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee, the son of Confederate general Robert E. Lee, requested a show of naval force to calm things down, and the USS Maine was sent to Havana harbor, clearly a provocative act.
adjective ~ to stimulate; to cause a reaction
Redefine ~ The war redefined national identity, served as a solution of sorts to the social divisions plaguing the American mind, and provided a model for future news reporting.
verb ~ to give something a new meaning
Sensational ~ Hearst published a sensational drawing on the front page of his Journal of an American woman being strip-searched by Spanish officers.
adjective ~ causing great public interest and excitement.
Slogan ~ Nevertheless, the yellow press adopted the slogan "Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!"
noun ~ a short memorable phrase used in advertising or politics
Stipulation ~ Congress pass the Platt Amendment of 1903 which added these stipulations.
noun ~ a condition or requirement that is specified or demanded as part of an agreement
Tactical ~ Once in Cuba, however, the Smoked Yankees, as the Cubans called the African American soldiers, fought side-by-side with Roosevelt's Rough Riders, providing crucial tactical support to some of the most important battles of the war.
adjective ~ relating to actions carefully planned to gaina specific military goal
Underscore ~ The movement of naval vessels between Asia and the United States and around the tip of South America underscored the need for a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in Central America.
verb ~ to emphasize the importance something
Worthwhile ~ For some of the soldiers, their recognition made the sacrifice worthwhile.
adjective ~ good and important enough to be worth spending time, effort, or money on.
Addendum ~ Similarly, when Mexico considered the idea of allowing a Japanese corporation to gain significant land and economic advantages in its country, Taft urged Congress to pass the Lodge Corollary, an addendum to the Roosevelt Corollary, stating that no foreign corporation, other than American ones, could obtain strategic lands in the Western Hemisphere.
noun ~ textual matter that is added onto a publication
Allegedly ~ While President McKinley ushered in the era of the American empire through military strength and economic coercion, his successor, Theodore Roosevelt, established a new foreign policy approach, allegedly based on a favorite African proverb, "speak softly, and carry a big stick, and you will go far."
adverb ~ something said to have been done, but has not been proved
Assertive ~ President Taft took a less belligerent tone, but was no less assertive.
adjective ~ having or showing a confident and forceful personality
Canal ~ The French attempted to construct a canal.
noun ~ an inland waterway constructed to allow the passage of boats or ships
Clout ~ Not unlike Roosevelt's threat of force, Taft used the threat of American economic clout to coerce countries into agreements to benefit the United States.
noun ~ influence or power, especially in politics or business.
Coercion ~ While President McKinley ushered in the era of the American empire through military strength and economic coercion, his successor, Theodore Roosevelt, established a new foreign policy approach, allegedly based on a favorite African proverb, "speak softly, and carry a big stick, and you will go far."
noun ~ forcing someone to do something they don't want to do
Coercive ~ Roosevelt believed that while the coercive power wielded by the United States could be harmful in the wrong hands, the Western Hemisphere's best interests were also the best interests of the United States.
adjective ~ relating to or using force or threats
Corollary ~ Roosevelt put the new corollary to work in Cuba, Panama, the Dominican Republic and Colombia.
noun ~ a proposition that follows from one that is already proved
Coup ~ Zemurra hired a private, mercenary army and the resulting coup d'état installed Bonilla as the new president.
noun ~ a sudden illegal, violent and forceful taking of government power
Crux ~ At the crux of his foreign policy was a coercion by threat.
noun ~ the decisive or most important point at issue
Foray ~ Wilson's most noted foreign policy foray prior to World War I focused on Mexico, where a civil war had broken out.
noun ~ a sudden short attack into enemy territory to obtain something
Fumigation ~ Most importantly, the lives of workers were protected with the introduction of fumigation systems and mosquito nets following Dr. Walter Reed's discovery of the role of mosquitoes in the spread of malaria and yellow fever.
noun ~ using poisonous gas or smoke to kill pests or disinfect
Half-Hearted ~ Although the foreign ministers of the other five nations sent half-hearted replies on behalf of their respective governments, with some outright denying the viability of the policy, Hay proclaimed it the new official policy on China, and American goods were unleashed throughout the nation.
adjective ~ lacking enthusiasm or energy
Idealistic ~ Instead, he proposed an idealistic foreign policy based on morality, rather than American self-interest.
adjective ~ believing that very good things can be achieved, often when this does not seem likely to other people
Infrastructure ~ For the first year of operations, the United States worked primarily to build adequate housing, cafeterias, warehouses, machine shops, and other elements of infrastructure that previous French efforts had failed to consider.
noun ~ the basic structure or framework of an organization or system
Inroad ~ Other countries, including Japan, Russia, Great Britain, France, and Germany also hoped to make inroads in China.
noun ~ a sudden hostile incursion; raid
Ostensibly ~ In November 1903, he sent American battleships to the coast of Colombia, ostensibly for practice maneuvers, as Panamanian business leaders who stood to benefit from the American canal effort led a revolution against Columbian rule.
adverb ~ in a way that appears or claims to be one thing when it is really something else
Proponent ~ Wilson appointed former presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, a noted anti-imperialist and proponent of world peace, as his Secretary of State.
noun ~ a person who supports an idea, plan, or cause
Stereotypical ~ It could be argued that American support for the overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani in Hawaii, although it occurred long before Taft's presidency, is another example of Dollar Diplomacy at work and that the Kingdom and subsequent Republic of Hawaii were both stereotypical banana republics.
adjective ~ a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.
Viability ~ Although the foreign ministers of the other five nations sent half-hearted replies on behalf of their respective governments, with some outright denying the viability of the policy, Hay proclaimed it the new official policy on China, and American goods were unleashed throughout the nation.
noun ~ ability to work as intended or to succeed
Abdication ~ The outbreak of a communist revolution in Russia in February and abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in March raised the prospect of democracy in Russia and removed an important moral objection to entering the war on the side of the Allies.
noun ~ when a king or queen gives up power
Antagonize ~ He decided to build up the German navy, antagonizing the Great Britain, and did not renew German agreements with Russia and in 1894.
verb ~ to anger someone enough to dislike and oppose you
Assassinate ~ A Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip, who hated Habsburg rule, assassinated the Archduke and his wife as they drove through the city in an open car.
verb ~ to murder a famous or important person, esp. for political reasons
Barbarous ~ All of these weapons strengthened defenses and turned each military offense into barbarous sacrifices of tens of thousands of lives with minimal territorial advances in return.
adjective ~ having the desire to inflict severe pain and suffering on others
Barbed ~ Both sides used new artillery, tanks, airplanes, machine guns, barbed wire, and, eventually, poison gas.
adjective ~ having a sharp point
Belligerence ~ Hughes focused his campaign on what he considered Wilson's foreign policy failures, but even as he did so, he himself tried to walk a fine line between neutrality and belligerence.
noun ~ aggressive or warlike behavior
Blockade ~ To limit Germany's industrial capability during the war, Britain had blockaded German ports with its superior navy.
noun ~ an act of sealing off a place to prevent goods or people from entering or leaving.
Capitalize ~ As the 1916 election approached, the Republican Party hoped to capitalize on the fact that Wilson was making promises that he would not be able to keep.
verb ~ to take a chance to gain an advantage
Catastrophe ~ By the end of the war, the total military death toll was ten million, as well as another million civilian deaths attributed to military action, and another six million civilian deaths caused by famine, disease, or other catastrophes brought about by the conflict.
noun ~ a sudden event that causes great suffering or destruction
Civilian ~ By the end of the war, the total military death toll was ten million, as well as another million civilian deaths attributed to military action, and another six million civilian deaths caused by famine, disease, or other catastrophes brought about by the conflict.
noun ~ a nonmilitary citizen
Decimate ~ World War I saw new military technologies that turned war into a conflict of prolonged trench warfare in which the enemies dug long lines of defense and faced each other across a decimated no man's land.
verb ~ kill, destroy, or remove in large numbers
Dominance ~ However, in 1871, several small German nations combined into the German Empire and Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck began to construct a web of alliances to protect German dominance.
noun ~ power and influence over others.
Enmity ~ In 1904, France and the United Kingdom decided to end centuries of bitter enmity by signing the Entente Cordiale, an unusual agreement between former enemies that was signed specifically to counter the growing military power of Germany.
noun ~ strong dislike or hate
Escalate ~ Despite the loss of American lives on the Lusitania, President Wilson stuck to his path of neutrality in Europe's escalating war, in part out of moral principle, in part as a matter of practical necessity, and in part for political reasons.
verb ~ to increase rapidly or becoming more intense or serious
Galvanize ~ The attack horrified the world, galvanizing support in England and beyond for the war.
verb ~ shock or excite a person or group into taking action.
Impartial ~ In his message to Congress in 1914, the president noted, "Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned."
adjective ~ treating all rivals equally; fair and just
Inevitability ~ Several different factors pushed Wilson, however reluctantly, toward the inevitability of American involvement.
adjective ~ certain to happen; unavoidable
Nonetheless ~ Nonetheless, almost 1,200 civilians died in the attack, including 128 Americans.
adverb ~ despite what has just been said or referred to
Paramount ~ For those of Anglo-Saxon descent, the nation's historic and ongoing relationship with Great Britain was paramount, but many Irish-Americans resented British rule over their place of birth and opposed support for the world's most expansive empire.
adjective ~ more important than anything else; supreme
Pogrom ~ Millions of Jewish immigrants had fled anti-Semitic pogroms in Tsarist Russia and would have supported any nation fighting that authoritarian state.
noun ~ organized massacre of an ethnic group, especially Jews
Quadruple ~ Specifically, the value of all exports to the Allies quadrupled from $750 million to $3 billion in the first two years of the war.
verb ~ increasing by four times
Slogan ~ In contrast, Wilson and the Democrats capitalized on neutrality and campaigned under the slogan "He kept us out of war."
noun ~ a short memorable phrase used in advertising or politics
Unrestricted ~ The German high command wanted to continue unrestricted warfare on all Atlantic traffic, including unarmed American freighters, in order to cripple the British economy and secure a quick and decisive victory.
adjective ~ not limited or controlled by rules or laws
Accolade ~ The accolades given to them, however, in no way extended to the bulk of African Americans fighting in the war.
noun ~ an expression of praise and approval; award
Ambivalent ~ Furthermore, even when they were doing men's jobs, women were typically paid lower wages than male workers, and unions were ambivalent at best, and hostile at worst, to women workers.
adjective ~ being uncertain about how you feel
Animosity ~ Wilson only briefly investigated the longstanding animosity between labor and management before ordering the creation of the National Labor War Board in April 1918.
noun ~ a strong dislike or unfriendly feeling
Attrition ~ With both the Allied and enemy forces entrenched in battles of attrition in thousands of miles of trenches, and supplies running low on both sides, the United States needed, first and foremost, to secure enough men, money, food, and supplies to be successful.
noun ~ gradually reducing the strength of someone or something by sustained attack or pressure.
Bilingual ~ Of this latter group, 230 of them, known as "Hello Girls," were bilingual and stationed in combat areas.
adjective ~ able to speak and use two languages
Clerical ~ Among the volunteers were also twenty thousand women, a quarter of whom went to France to serve as nurses or in clerical positions.
adjective ~ relating to office work, especially with documents and administrative tasks
Disseminate ~ Wilson created the Committee on Public Information under the direction of George Creel to create and disseminate propaganda.
verb ~ to spread or give out news, information, and ideas to many people
Entrenched ~ With both the Allied and enemy forces entrenched in battles of attrition in thousands of miles of trenches, and supplies running low on both sides, the United States needed, first and foremost, to secure enough men, money, food, and supplies to be successful.
adjective ~ firmly established and difficult or unlikely to change
Exacerbate ~ The increase in production that the war required exposed severe labor shortages in many states, a condition that was further exacerbated by the draft, which pulled millions of young men from the active labor force.
verb ~ to make something that is already bad worse
Extol ~ The Liberty Loan Act allowed the federal government to sell liberty bonds to the American public, extolling citizens to "do their part" to help the war effort and bring the troops home.
verb ~ to praise, glorify, or honor
Familiarize ~ Even under these circumstances, wartime employment familiarized women with an alternative to a life in domesticity and dependency, making a life of employment, even a career, plausible for women.
verb ~ to make something well known or of common knowledge
Flagrant ~ Many cried that this was a flagrant violation of precious civil liberties, including the right to free speech.
adjective ~ obviously wrong or offensive in some way, scandalous
Incidence ~ According to NAACP statistics, recorded incidences of lynching increased from thirty-eight in 1917 to eighty-three in 1919.
noun ~ the occurance, rate or frequency at which something happens
Lucrative ~ Baruch used lucrative contracts with guaranteed profits to encourage several private firms to shift their production over to wartime materials.
adjective ~ making a large profit
Manifold ~ Their reasons for joining were manifold.
adjective ~ many and varied; having many features or forms
Menial ~ African Americans served in segregated units and suffered from widespread racism in the military hierarchy, often serving in menial or support roles.
adjective ~ work needing little skill or education
Meritorious ~ One hundred seventy-one men from that regiment received the Legion of Merit for meritorious service in combat.
adjective ~ deserving great praise and reward
Municipality ~ Worried about the large influx of African Americans into their cities, several municipalities passed residential codes designed to prohibit African Americans from settling in certain neighborhoods.
noun ~ a city or town with its own local government
Poignant ~ An army of Four-Minute Men swept the nation making short, but poignant, powerful speeches.
adjective ~ causing a feeling of sadness, keenly distressing to minds or feelings
Pummel ~ On a local level, schoolchildren were pummeled on schoolyards, and yellow paint was splashed on front doors.
verb ~ strike repeatedly with the fists
Sabotage ~ Schenck was arrested for sabotaging the draft.
verb ~ to intentionally damage or destroy property
Stifled ~ Although all of this dissent was rather small, the government stifled wartime opposition by law with the passing of the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917.
verb ~ to prevent something from happening, being expressed, or continued
Upheaval ~ African Americans also found that the war brought upheaval and opportunity.
noun ~ a violent or sudden change or disruption to something
Wage ~ Wilson appointed William McAdoo, the Secretary of the Treasury, to lead this agency, which had extraordinary war powers to control the entire railroad industry, including traffic, terminals, rates, and wages.
noun ~ an amount of money that is paid to an employee
Workforce ~ More than one million women entered the workforce for the first time as a result of the war, while more than eight million working women found higher paying jobs, often in industry.
noun ~ the people employed or available for employment
Casualty ~ The U.S. forces suffered 10,000 casualties in the three-week battle, with almost 2,000 killed in total and 1,087 on a single day.
noun ~ someone injured or killed in an accident or war
Coherent ~ Frustrated that his dream of a new world order was slipping away, a frustration that was compounded by the fact that, now an invalid, he was unable to speak his own thoughts coherently, Wilson urged Democrats in the Senate to reject any effort to compromise on the treaty.
adjective ~ having its parts related in an organized and reasonable way
Covenant ~ In the covenant of the new league, all member nations in the League agreed to defend any nation that was under attack.
noun ~ a formal agreement between countries, organizations, or people
De Facto ~ There he suffered a debilitating stroke, leaving his second wife Edith Wilson in charge as de facto president for a period of about six months.
adjective, adverb ~ existing in fact, although not necessarily intended or legal
Debilitating ~ There he suffered a debilitating stroke, leaving his second wife Edith Wilson in charge as de facto president for a period of about six months.
adjective ~ causing weakness and infirm
Engulf ~ Senator Lodge and the isolationists in Congress won the political argument and America sat on the sidelines during the 1920s and 1930s and conflicts engulfed Europe and Asia.
verb ~ to surround and cover completely
Ensuing ~ Politicians on both sides of the argument about the Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations used the ensuing decades as evidence that they had been right all along.
adjective ~ happening after or following something else
Epidemic ~ In 1914 alone, louse-borne epidemic typhus killed 200,000 in Serbia.
noun ~ a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
Galvanize ~ This move would ultimately have the opposite effect of galvanizing popular support for the Bolsheviks.
verb ~ shock or excite a person or group into taking action.
Grueling ~ He began travelling in September 1919, and the grueling pace, after the stress of the six months in Paris, proved too much.
adjective ~ extremely exhausting, and demanding great effort and determination
Impede ~ On the other side of the political spectrum, interventionists such as Wilson argued that Article X would impede the United States from using her rightfully attained military power to secure and protect America's international interests.
verb ~ delay or prevent someone or something)by obstructing them; hinder
Ironically ~ Ironically, this article would prove to be the undoing of Wilson's dream of a new world order.
adverb ~ in a way that is different or opposite from the result you would expect
Justification ~ While Wilson had been loath to involve the United States in the war, he saw the country's eventual participation as justification for America's involvement in developing a moral foreign policy for the entire world.
noun ~ the action of showing something to be right or reasonable
Loath ~ While Wilson had been loath to involve the United States in the war, he saw the country's eventual participation as justification for America's involvement in developing a moral foreign policy for the entire world.
adjective ~ unwilling; reluctant; not wanting to
Malnutrition ~ Hundreds of thousands of civilians also died, in large part due to food shortages and malnutrition that weakened resistance to disease.
noun ~ physical weakness and bad health caused by a lack of proper food
Misgiving ~ Although the French public greeted Wilson with overwhelming enthusiasm, other delegates at the conference had deep misgiving about the American president's plans for a "peace without victory."
noun ~ a feeling of doubt, uncertainty, or worry about a future event
Obligated ~ If the United States agreed to join the League of Nations, the country would be obligated to defend any other nation that came under attack, regardless of when or where.
adjective ~ caused by law or conscience to follow a certain course
Onslaught ~ At the latter, faced with a German onslaught of mustard gas, artillery fire, and mortar fire, U.S.
noun ~ fierce or destructive attack
Pandemic ~ Overall, the 1918 flu pandemic killed at least 50 million people, accounting for 3-5% of the world's entire population.
noun ~ a dangerous disease that infects many people at one time
Procurement ~ Great Britain and France had indebted themselves heavily in the procurement of vital American military supplies and Germany was struggling to maintain its ability to fight because of the crushing blockade.
noun ~ the act of acquiring military equipment and supplies
Slip Away ~ Frustrated that his dream of a new world order was slipping away, a frustration that was compounded by the fact that, now an invalid, he was unable to speak his own thoughts coherently, Wilson urged Democrats in the Senate to reject any effort to compromise on the treaty.
phrasal verb ~ to leave without being noticed
Topple ~ The Russian Revolution of the previous year had not only toppled the hated regime of Tsar Nicholas II but also ushered in a civil war from which the Communist revolutionaries under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin emerged victorious.
verb ~ becomes unsteady and falls down
Undermine ~ As for Bolshevik Russia, Wilson had agreed to send American troops to their northern region to protect Allied supplies and holdings there, while also participating in an economic blockade designed to undermine Lenin's power.
verb ~ to gradually weaken or destroy someone or something
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