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TH Exam 2
Terms in this set (177)
Cause of the decline of civilization (3)
1. wars, famine, disease
2. rise of catholicism
3. manoralism and feudalism
result of manorlism and feudalism
merchant class gone, poor and rich become separate
killed drama in Europe, then resurrected it and monitored it
the Catholic church
How did theatre disappear in 500-900 AD?
traveling mimes, jugglers, etc. (Everything individual)
Where did liturgical dramas develop from?
Hours services (9 different hours)
Where did theatre start again in the Middle Ages?
the churches, as a teaching tool
What language were liturgical dramas in?
lessons with singing dialogue developed into plays
language used for plays until they moved out of the church
4 aspects of staging in liturgical dramas
1. mansion as a background
2. platea as a floor
3. flying machinery for angels
4. clergy and choir boys as actors
satire of religious drama
"Feast of Fools"
1st female playwright
Hrosvitha of Gandersheim
Who was she?
a canoness at a German convent
Gandersheim- Number of plays, what language
Gandershem wrote based on whose Roman comedies with focus on female characters
What did vikings to in the 11th century Middle Ages?
they quit pillaging
What began again with the decline of manor and feudalism in the Middle Ages?
What emerged in the 12th century of the middle ages
What was created in the Middle Ages?
In the late middle ages what flourishes again?
What is the corpus christi festival?
drama with events ranging from creation to destruction of the world
What is the biggest change in the late middle ages?
outside and vernacular( language of the people)
Purpose of changing the vernacular for religious drama
making religion relevant to life
State in the late Middle Ages:
1. flourishes again
2. outside performances, adjacent or attached to the church
3. Corpus Christi Festival (events like creation and destruction of the world)
4. outside performances and vernacular (language of the people)
episodic religious plays, didn't bridge gaps between short plays in long cycles
3 authors of cycle plays
the 3 m's of medieval drama
1. Mystery plays: Biblical stories
2. Miracle plays: Saints' lives
3. Morality plays: Allegories
Who took over production from the church in the 14th century?
Trade guilds (but the church monitored content)
What does trade guilds provide?
pageant wagons, scenery, costume, props, actors
2 top vital organizers of the cycle plays
1. Pageant Master
Who is the director or vital organizer of the cycle plays?
the pageant master
wrote about the pageant master's duties
role of pageant master (8)
Stage construction and design
scenery design and construction
purchasing and inventory
casting and rehearsals
discipline and fines
box office plans
PR and promotion
Master of ceremonies
What were the rehearsals for the cycle plays like? (5)
1. over several months
2. 2-5 rehearsals between dawn and work
3. dangerous attempts at realism
4. actors fined for being late or drunk
5. multiple playlets at same time
What were the actors like in cycle plays?
local population or churches
very few women
What was an actor exception in the cycle plays?
women were allowed for female saints
What were the two reasons for men to be in cycle plays over women?
trained choir boys had better projection
2 types of costumes
1. ecclesiastical robes
2. every clothes
used to identify characters
heaven versus hell representatives
heaven: awe, gilded masks
Common humans dressed how in cycle plays?
they dressed according to rank
Where were cycle plays staged?
1. fixed stage against buildings, on side of town square, or in an amphitheater
How was the stage divided?
3 areas from left to right - hell, earth, heaven (lower to higher)
Were the cycle plays staged in entirety?
No, just suggestions
What was a possible french approach to staging?
wide stage with mansions
why did producers like special effects?
great attention to "secrets"
examples of special effects
fire, smoke, trapdoors, pulleys, flooding, flying
chambers of rhetoric
competitions of minimalist plays
What was prevalent in medieval theatre?
What sound announced god in medieval theatre?
What bridged intermission in the medieval theatre?
vocal and instrumental music
The audience in medieval theatre were who?
spectators who came from surrounding towns and countryside
How were people invited to see the plays in the medieval times?
posters were put up on a city gate
invitations were set out to neighboring towns
trumpeter rode through town announcing
Types of secular drama
chambers of rhetoric
What were the chambers of rhetoric
competition tournament of minimalist plays
plays responding to a question or theme
at the end of masquerades to cover costs or go to charity
a mumming play
WHat was a mumming play?
related to drama due to disguise, processions, and need for a spokesperson
How would a mumming play end?
With the collection of money to pay for refreshments and local charities
stages along the street
clerks and children would address them with songs and speeches
journeyed away from religious material
Who presented the first tragedy in french theatre?
What was the first french tragedy?
First french comedy?
Who was france's first professional playwright?
What was the most popular form of theatre in French theatre?
farce was the most popular dramatic form
Who was one of the greatest French dramatists?
Acting companies emerging in french theatre
company settles in Hotel de Bourgogne
company settles in paris
The adoption of italiante scenery
first proscenium theatre in france
use of wing and drop border scenery
ballet were popular
Wing drop and border scenery were called what
What were some french playwrites?
WHat were the two parisian troupes with monopolistic privleges
The comedie fransaise
What was England like in Shakespeare's time?
4. rich and poor
5. location of theatre
6. commerce and ? closely relatedaa
2. strong sea (defeated Spanish Armada)
3. small by modern standards, but London largest in Europe
4. poor want to be wealthy and get titles
5. bad end of London to avoid regulation
3 writers of Tudor drama
Udall, Stevenson, Preston
Name of an early Tudor Drama
extremely long... something about Cabises, King of Persia
who was the king of persia
started Golden Age of English drama, critics of Shakespeare
the educated of Cambridge and Oxford
the University Wits
The university wits bridged what gap?
between scholars and popular audiences
the university wits made the foundation for...
Shakespeare and his contemporaries
4 of the University Wits
1. Thomas Kyd
2. John Lyly
3. Robert Greene
4. Christopher Marlowe
Kyd's play, model for revenge play (like Hamlet)
The Spanish Tragedy
Who does lyly's plays cater to?
the aristocratic audience
Lyly's pastoral comedy
What was Robert Greene known for?
most influential University Wit, focused on the protagonist
Whose plays cater to the aristocrats?
4 plays by Christopher Marlowe?
1. Dr. Faustus
3. Jew of Malta
4. Edward II
4 Marlowe myths
How did Marlowe die?
murdered in a tavern brawl ten days after arrest for heresy charges
Why did no one believe that shakespeare was really shakespeare?
no one wanted to beleive that a middle class boy could become the world's greatest writer
Why is Shakespeare NOT Edward DeVer, Earl of Oxford?
died before some of the plays were finished, Shakespeare acted at Blackfriar's after his death
reasons why shakespeare is really shapespeare
we know more about him than any other writer in the period
we know about his marriage, family, children, death
Who was Shakespeare's neighbor?
Richard Fields, became published in London
Where did Shakespeare go to high school?
King's New School in Stratford
Age married Anne Hathaway
Age started writing
38, probably contributed to others
Shakespeare's early mark
his comedies (errors, love's labour, verona, shrew, midsum)
popularized myths of England
William shakespeare was a playwright and shareholder in...
The Lord Chamberlain's Men
lead actor in his plays
earned him less criticism
Coat of Arms
when did he probe deeper with his writing?
father and son died in the same year
comedies: venice, much ado, windsor, as you, twelfth
histories: rich II, Hen IV, Hen V
turning point, first of the 3 great tragedies
Middle plays opposed...
Shakespeare adapted his writing to...
his actor's styles
2 types of companies
boys vs. adults
When does the group change to the "King's Men"?
under James I
Response when Puritans criticized public theatre
private theatre more popular, moved to Blackfriar's theatre
Even without Shakespeare...
Jacobean/Elizabethan era would be most influential
Elizabethan author with gift for satire (Arrested for it several times)
Every Man in his Humor, volpone, alchemist, bartholomew fair
wrote the duchess of malfi
wrote the maid's tragedy
Beaumont and Fletcher
# of plays written by 250 playwrights between 1590 and 1642
who did Shakespeare target?
the classical tragedies
ironic, dispiriting (ie Cressida, Timon of Athens, Cleopatra)
the Great tragedies
the good may die, but the evil will be condemned
the big 4 of Shakespeare's great tragedies
3. King Lear
Shakespeare's farewell to the stage
The Winter's Tale
Date Shakespeare died
April 23, 1616
received second best bed
where is there a monument to Shakespeare?
How many words did Shakespeare invent?
Shakespeare's plays are famous for
Shapespeare's play usually reach the climax by...
the 3rd act
How are the character's of shakespeare clearly defined?
soliloquies and descriptions
Shakespare's plays usually have...
one important line that states the theme
the area around the Playhouse stage
the Playhouse roof - supported by pillars - was called...
flags informed the audience of what kind of play
1. black - tragedy
2. white - comedy
3. red - history
black flags were
white flags were
red flags were
one of the most famous Elizabethan theatres
seating surrounding the globe
how many actors in the Globe company
25, all male
who was part owner of the globe?
how much was admission to the globe for standing room?
two things the globe did not have
one play could be performed...
10 times in a season
how many days a week did the globe have shows?
When did Lord Chamberlain's Men change to King's Men?
how many times a year did the King's Men perform at court
the performances in the globe
80% can be played on a bare stage
costume was important
what are the five types of costumes
Who was Richard Burbage?
greatest actor of the time period
story comparing party host to mythical character
made most of the effects for the masques
What were court masques
allegorical story used comparing honored person to a mythical character and situation
Golden Age of Spanish Drama
combined morality and cycle plays
who staged Spanish plays?
at first trade guilds, then the City Council, then professional troupes
wrote all autos from 1647-1681
wagons the plays were mounted on
secular drama emerging in Spain
founder of Spanish drama - first Spanish secular dramas to be performed
Juan del Encina
first important figure of Spanish professional theatre
Lope de Rueda
wrote regularly for Spanish stage after 1590
Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega:
1. # possible scripts
2. important Spanish theme
4. action and suspense
2. love and honor
3. better roles
4. clearly defined
wrote the Seven Children of Lara (Spanish history)
wrote Don Quixote and 30 others
religious writer of autos and allegories
Calderon's most famous work
Life is a Dream
name of Spanish public theatres
why called corrales?
adapted from existing courtyards
theatre to raise money for charity
Cofradia de la Pasion y Sangre de Jesucristo
first permanent theatre in Spain
Correl de la Cruz
Where was the Corral de la Cruz?
Corrales were ? until 18th century
structure of corrales
patios, gradas, conzuelas, boxes, attic, alcades patrol, concessions
what were spectators like in the corrales
very vocal, threw fruit, shouted Victor when they approved
how did companies get a license to perform?
civic officials had to view the show
Why did actors dress so lavishly in Spanish theatre?
provided own costumes and wanted to look as fancy as possible
what hurt the public theatre?
the court would often usurp performances
Other sets by this creator
18th century northern europe
18th century Italy and france
theatre movement flexibility test
BOLD 2010 Final Exam 2021