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CHAPTER 1 THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION
Terms in this set (41)
(Greek "to cut apart") - the study of the form, or structure of body parts and of how these parts relate to one another. Static image.
the study of the functioning of the body's structural machinery - how the parts of the body work and carry out their life-sustaining activities. Dynamic processes.
study of large body structures visible to the naked eye.
all structures in one part of the body are studied at the same time. b. Systemic anatomy: various systems of the body are studied.
examination of body tissues using a microscope
study of the cells of the body
study of the tissues of the body
: developmental changes occurring before birth Pathology: disease related changes Molecular biology: subcellular level
is also subdivided into several specialized areas based on the functioning of specific organ systems (such as digestive, muscular, etc.) or a functional system (such as the immune system).
"Complementarity of structure and function"
function always reflects structure. What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
"Hierarchy of Structural Organization"
the human body incorporates many levels of structural complexity:
building blocks of matter
water, sugar, proteins -- groups of atoms , groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
basic components of microscopic cells
living structural and functional units of an organism
groups of similar cells having common structure and function. Four basic types
complex physiological processes become possible. Discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types; four tissue types more common.
organs that cooperate and work closely together to accomplish a common purpose
sum total of all levels of complexity working continuously and in unison.
ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions despite a changing external environment. Dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance. The body is said to be in homeostasis when its cellular needs are adequately met and functional activities are occurring smoothly. Virtually every organ system plays a role in maintaining the internal environment.
Maintenance of boundaries
keeps the internal environment separate and distinct from the external environment. Cell membranes contain its contents while admitting needed substances and restricting the entry of unnecessary or harmful substances.
includes all activities promoted by the muscular system such as walking, running, movement of blood, food, urine through the internal organs, etc.
ability to sense change and respond to it.
breakdown of ingested food into usable molecules.
all chemical reactions occurring within the cells. Depends on other systems and is regulated by the endocrine system.
removal of unusable waste products
formation of offspring
ase in size.
The ultimate goal of nearly all body systems
is to maintain life. Requires several factors acting together for its persistence.
chemical substances used for energy and cell building and maintenance. carbohydrates (CHO) - major energy fuel; proteins/fats - building cell structures; minerals/vitamins - assist in chemical reactions
absolutely essential. Chemical reactions that release energy from food are oxidative reactions and require oxygen. 20% of the air we breathe.
60-80%of body weight. Provides liquid environment for chemical reactions and fluid base for body secretions/excretions.
must be maintained around 37oC (98.6oF). Decreased temp: physiological reactions slowed. Increased temp: chemical reactions proceed too rapidly, body proteins denature
required for exchange of gases in the lungs
Communications within the body are essential for homeostasis. Accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems. All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components:
determines the set point, analyzes input and determines the appropriate response.
monitors the environment, sends information or input to the control center (afferent pathway)
provides the means by which the control center can cause a response to a stimulus (efferent pathway)
The result of the response which "feeds back" to influence the stimulus, either depressing it (negative feedback) or enhancing it (positive feedback). Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms. The output of the system feeds back and decreases the input into the system. The net effect is to decrease the original stimulus or reduce its effects.
example: blood glucose regulation (insulin/glucagon)
, negative feedback is a mechanism that either turns a process on or off, like a light switch. positive feedback mechanisms amplify a process that is already happening.
All negative feedback mechanisms have the same goal -- prevention of sudden severe changes within the body.
In positive feedback mechanisms the response enhances the original stimulus and the output is accelerated. The change that occurs proceeds in the same direction as the initial disturbance, causing the further deviation from the original set point.
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