take up and incorporating foreign DNA from the surrounding environment. (guy sweating and then someone coming up and soaking in his sweat; then being able to bench 600 pounds.) Transduction:
movement of genes between bacteria by viruses. Occurs in plants and animals, but it is most prominent in bacteria. One reason for this: if you got a cold from your significant other, you may get some of their DNA cells. This is irrelevant because unless the DNA gets into a gamete, you can't pass it onto your offspring. If you have a virus called a bacteriophage and it attaches to a bacteria with its own genetic material, the virus will inject its own viral DNA into the bacteria, and so the bacteria start to produce viral DNA. Then, it starts to put the viral genetic material together. The viruses bust out of the bacteria and then the bacteria cell dies. This is called the lytic cycle. Sometimes, a virus can have bacterial DNA instead if a mistake happens. It will pass bacterial DNA to other bacteria. This is called transduction. This could result in the death of the bacteria, but if it doesn't, the bacteria will pass the genetic info to its offspring. Conjugation:
Not reproduction. genetic material is transferred by pili. (One grows a sex pilus, conjugal bridge is formed, and sends some of their genetic material to the other one. The conjugal bridge will break after the genetic material is sent, and the bacteria go along their way. Only works one way, only one bacteria is receiving the genetic material. When one bacteria decides to asexually reproduce, it will pass that genetic info onto the next generation.) Ø These three different ways for bacteria to pass on genetic material allow the bacteria to rapidly transfer genes to one another through horizontal gene transfer.
Proteobacteria (highly varied kingdom, one of the biggest. Where they think mitochondria came from). These gram-negative bacteria include photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophs.
Some are anaerobic and others aerobic Some are pathogenic:
Campylobacter, which causes blood poisoning.
Helicobacter pylori, which causes stomach ulcers (usually ulcers are caused by bacteria, this particular bacteria can tolerate stomach acid.) Other prominent members:
E. coli (most E. coli does not cause diseases, but a few do)
Rhizobium, which forms root nodules in legumes and fixes atmospheric N2,
79% of the air we breathe has nitrogen, but we can't absorb it.
Bacteria converts nitrogen into ammonia or nitrates which plants use, and then it goes on up the food chain. Originally, bacteria was the only organism that could convert nitrogen into usable substances.