what allows something to be magnetic
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do polar molecules travel further in chromatographyyesWhy do we use other bonding theories in addition to the Lewis model?Lewis model cannot predict all of the properties of a molecule or ion.Choose the correct hybridization for xenon in XeF4sp3d2Label the bonds between xenon and fluorine using the σ and π notation followed by the type of overlapping orbitals.Xe(sp3d2)−F(p)According to valence bond theory, the shape of the molecule is determined by the ------- of the ----------geometry; overlapping orbitalsUse molecular orbital theory to predict the bond order in H2+0.5how to calculate bond order(bonding electrons - antibonding electrons)/2bonding electronswhen two electrons form a bond, it's favorable and will result in a decrease in energyantibonding electronsdestructive interference of electrons and will result in an increase in energyIs the H2+ bond a stronger or weaker bond than the H2 bond?weakerThe number of hybrid orbitals formed ----- equals the number of ------------- added together.always; all the standard atomic orbitals hybridizedintermolecular forcesforces of attraction between molecules -increases rapidly as distance between species gets smallerdipole-dipole interactionsType of intermolecular force in which opposite poles of neighboring dipole molecules are drawn together.hydrogen bondingthe intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby moleculeLondon dispersion forcesThe intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipolesion dipole forcean intermolecular force between an ion and the oppositely charged end of a polar moleculepolarizabilitythe ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or molecule can be distortedStoichiometrythe relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction or forming a compound, typically a ratio of whole integers.combustion reactions- the reaction of a substance with O2 to form one or more oxygen-containing compounds, often including water - always release heat - convert all carbon to CO2 - convert all H to H2O (as water vapor)alkali metal reactions with halogens2 M + X2 --> 2MX where M is a metal and X is a halogenalkali metal reactions with water2M + 2H2O --> 2M+ +2OH- +H2 where M is a metalhalogen reactions with metals2M + nX2 --> nMX where M is a metal and X is a halogenhalogen reactions with H2 (g)H2 + X2 --> 2HX where X is a halogenhalogen reactions with other halogensX2 +X2 prime --> 2XX primehow to calculate percent yieldactual yield/theoretical yield x 100how to calculate theoretical yield-Balance equation Determine limiting reagent (which reagent produces the least moles of product) -(Moles of limiting reagent used in reaction) x (moles of reagent in equation/moles of product in equation) = moles of product produced in reaction -(Moles of product produced) x (molar mass of product) = theoretical yield (in grams)precipitation reactiona reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separates from the solutionmolaritythe number of moles of solute per liter of solutionhow to calculate dilution of a solutionM1V1 = M2V2electrolyte solutionscontain dissolved ions (charged particles) and therefore conduct electricitynon electrolyte solutionscontain dissolved molecules (neutral particles) and therefore do not conduct electricityionic compoundscreate electrolyte solutions (compounds composed of cations and anions)molecular compoundscreate non-electrolyte solutions (A compound consisting of molecules of covalently bonded atoms)exception to (non) electrolyte solutionsacids and bases are molecular compounds that dissociate in solution for form electrolytescompounds containing these are generally soluble with no exceptionsLi+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, C2H3O2-compounds containing these are generally soluble except when paired with Ag+, Hg2 2+, or Pb2+Cl-, Br-, I-compounds containing this are generally soluble except when paired with Sr 2+, Ba 2+, Pb 2+, Ag+, or Ca 2+SO4-compounds containing these are generally insoluble except when paired with Li+. Na+, K+, NH4+OH-, S 2-compounds containing this are generally insoluble except when paired with Ca 2+, Sr 2+, or Ba 2+S 2-compounds containing this are generally slightly soluble when paired with Ca 2+, Sr 2+, or Ba 2+OH-compounds containing these are generally insoluble except when paired with Li+, Na+, K+, or NH4+SO3 2- and PO4 3-redox reactionA chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.the atom that loses electrons isoxidizedthe atom that gains electrons isreducedWhat does H2CO3 break down into?H2O(l)+CO2(g)if one of the two products in an equation is aqueous and the other is water which goes in the net ionic equationwaterarrhenious acida chemical compound that increases the concentration of H+ in aqueous solutionarrhenious basea substance that produces OH- in waterstrong acidan acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solutionweak acidan acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solutionweak baseA base that does not dissociate completely into ions in solution.strong baseA base that dissociates completely into ions in solution.diprotic acidsacids that contain two ionizable hydrogensformula for acid-base reactionscation + anion = water + saltpolyprotic acidan acid that can donate more than one proton per moleculeacid-base titrationa laboratory procedure in which a basic (or acidic) solution of unknown concentration is reacted with an acidic (or basic) solution of known concentration, in order to determine the concentration of the unknowngas evolution reactiona reaction in which two aqueous solutions are mixed and a gas forms, resulting in bubblinggas evolution reactions similar to a precipitation reactioncation + anion = gas H2SO4 (aq) + LiS (aq) = H2S (g) + Li2SO4 (aq)gas evolution reactions similar to an acid-base reactionacid + base = aqueous intermediate = gas + water + salt HCl (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq) = H2CO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) = H2O (l) + O2 (g) + NaCl (aq)oxidation statethe condition of an atom expressed by the number of electrons that the atom needs to reach its elemental formcharge on group 1 elements+1charge on group 2 elements+2charge on group 15 elements-3charge on group 16 elements-2charge on group 17 elements-1step 1 of determining oxidation stateif it is an atomic (full octet ie Ne) or molecular (two of one atom) element the oxidation state is 0step 2 of determining oxidation stateif it's a monoatomic ion, look at the atomic chargestep 3 of determining oxidation stateassign main group oxidation states based on octet rulestep 4 of determining oxidation statesum of oxidation states = total charge of moleculeoxidizing agentAccepts electrons and becomes reduced.reducing agentDonates electrons and becomes oxidized.boiling point—> the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid —> the stronger the IMFs, the more attracted the molecules will be to each other ..... the more energy will be required to separate them (liquid to gas phase)Weakest to strongest intermolecular forcesLondon dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole