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Terms in this set (112)
Senator from Missouri who vowed to see Nebraska "sink in hell" before having it become free soil. He was president pro tem of the Senate and had inherited Calhoun's mantle as leader of the southern- rights faction. He was very much pro-slavery and was active in politics leading up to the Civil War.
Law enacted in 1854 to organize the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska that effectively repealed the provision of the 1820 Missouri Compromise by leaving the question of slavery to the territories' settlers.
Illinois Whig who became the Republican Party's first successful presidential candidate in 1860 and led the Union during the Civil War. He was in a number of famous debates with Stephen Douglass. He believed in kindness and was famous for his Emancipation Proclamation. He was killed at the end of the Civil War by John Wilkes Booth.
A candidate in the 1852 presidential election. After many southern Whigs flocked to the Democratic party, he was able to win all but two slave states.
Election of 1852
Franklin Pierce vs. Winfield Scott. Both ran on a campaign which supported the compromise of 1850, but the Whigs were more divided. Pierce won and became the 14th president. The loss of the Whigs to Democratic Pierce was the effective end of the Whigs as a party.
A movement of hostility of native-born Americans directed against immigrants and other foreigners.
American Party was official name. Based on nativist sentiment and participated in discrimination against immigrants. Influence in policy that is greater than their numbers, shows strength of anti-immigrant sentiments.
Schools associated with a church, usually Roman Catholic. The funding of these schools became a major political issue in the 1850s.
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
Nativist group protesting the mass immigration of Irish, Roman Catholics, and Germans into America. It developed into the "Know-Nothing" party. The name derived from its secretiveness. Membership was limited to native born Protestants.
Intolerance toward those who are different or to those that hold different opinions from oneself. Bigotry is usually based on either race or religion.
The formal name of the Know Nothings. Know Nothings = Secretive group that was based on nativist sentiment and participated in discrimination against immigrants. Influence in policy that is greater than their numbers, shows strength of anti-immigrant sentiments.
Term used to describe proslavery Missourians who streamed into Kansas in 1854, determined to vote as many times as necessary to install a proslavery government there. They cast thousands of illegal votes.
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union supporting the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severely injured him. The attack made the South very proud and made the North very angry. After this incident, Republicans gained thousands of votes. The incident also seemed to prove that slavery was an evil and violent force.
The free city in Kansas where a pro-slavery mob destroyed newspaper presses, set the governor's house on fire, stole property, and demolished the Free State Hotel.
Prominent abolitionist who fought for the antislavery cause in Kansas and led a raid to seize the Harpers Ferry arsenal in 1859.
Election of 1856
Republicans had become the largest political party in the North. Their platform was mainly antislavery but also incorporated federal aid for internal improvements. It was between Buchanan, Fremont (Bear Flag Revolt), and Fillmore. Buchanan won.
Enthusiastic champion of American settlement in Mexican California known as "the Pathfinder". With a small group of Americans he captured Sonoma & declared California to be the Republic of California. He was a Republican candidate in the election of 1856.
American politician and fifteenth president of the United States, he was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president in 1856 for being politically experienced and not offensive to slave states.
Label coined by the Democratic Party to attack the Republican Party as believers in racial equality. The Democrats used this fear to convince many whites to remain loyal to them.
Missouri slave who sued for freedom on the grounds of prolonged residence in a free state and free territory. In 1857, the Supreme Court found against his case, declaring that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
People who openly disagree with the majority opinion.
Procedure that allows the electorate to decide an issue through a direct vote.
Term used to measure the wealth of a nation by dividing total income by population.
Industrial technique using machine tools to cut and shape a large number of similar parts that can be fitted together with other parts to make an entire item, frequently guns.
The inventor that made the first practical revolving pistol. The gun allowed 6 shots to fired relatively quickly, a development that revolutionized warfare. He also pioneered interchangeable parts, a concept that said that identical parts could be rapidly and cheaply produced and then assembled into the same item reliably and quickly.
economy based on the export of agricultural products and the import of manufactured goods; sometimes used to describe the dependence of the South on the North.
A system of capitalism based on the labor of free people. It provided wages and standards of living in the north that were the highest in the world by 1860.
Panic of 1857
A financial panic that resulted from overspeculation of railroad stocks, rising land costs, and risky banking practices. The South's cotton economy was unaffected by the strife, leading them to believe that they could be self-sufficient.
Belief that all work in a free society is honorable and that manual labor is degraded when it is equated with slavery or bondage.
Hinton Rowan Helper
Southern who argued against slavery not on moral grounds, but because he believed it was a system that impoverished poor southern whites and kept the South poorer than the North. He wrote The Impending Crisis of the South, which was banned in the south but made a huge impact in the north.
Concept that emphasized the equality of all who belonged to the master race-not all mankind.
Douglas's idea that even though slavery was legalized in all the territories, the citizens themselves did not have to allow slavery in their land. It was a form of nonviolent resistance against slavery in the territories.
Site of John Brown's 1859 raid on a US armory and arsenal for the manufacture and storage of military rifles.
Buchanan's vice president and candidate for the presidency in 1860. He was supported by many Southerners and won 72 electoral votes but still lost to Lincoln.
Presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union Party. He drew votes away from the Democrats, helping Lincoln win. He was never actually expected to win but only ran to exert a conservative influence on the campaign.
Southerners who were eager, enthusiastic supporters of southern rights and later secession.
Attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden. It offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. It was defeated by Republicans.
Confederate States of America (CSA)
The new republic that was formed of all the states that decided to secede from the US. This was the official government that the Union was at war with during the Civil War. Jefferson Davis was its only president. Its constitution very specifically allowed slavery.
Commander of a regiment in the Mexican War, secretary of war under Pierce, and first and only president of the CSA. He was elected to give the CSA an appearance of moderation and respectability.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. The confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War. The confederates attacked after Lincoln planned to supply the fort peacefully as a political move against the CSA.
General Pierre Gustav Toutant-Beauregard
The commander of the troops and artillery surrounding Fort Sumter. On orders from Davis, he attacked the fort and started the United States Civil War.
Robert E. Lee
A very talented US army officer. He was offered command of the US army during the Civil War but turned it down because he would not fight against his home state of Virginia. He won many battles and was absolutely revered by his men. He was forced to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.
States that were in the middle of the country and were between the Union and the confederacy. They were Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, and Delaware.
Southerners who remained loyal to the union during the Civil War.
Confederate guerilla raiders especially active in Missouri. Jayhawkers were the Union version of the same type of people. Both groups did a tremendous amount of damage with raids, arson, ambush, and murder.
William Quantrill/Bloody Bill Anderson
Notorious captains of the confederate guerrillas in Missouri. They were very active in the civil war within the Civil War that took place in the state. They were in charge of notorious Old West outlaws like Jesse James and Cole Younger.
Mountainous region that broke away from Virginia in 1861 to form its own state after Virginia seceded from the Union. Most of the residents of West Virginia were independent farmers and miners who did not own slaves and thus were opposed the Confederate cause.
Five civilized tribes
The name given to remaining Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Chickasaws, and Choctaws. They tended to side with the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Battle of Glorieta Pass
Civil War battle in which Union troops and volunteer Colorado miners stopped a Confederate invasion of Northern New Mexico.
The general feeling of the people toward such events as a war. Good morale generally enhances an ability to fight or sacrifice for a cause.
Term used to describe soldiers that are either volunteers or draftees that have been trained and equipped as soldiers. They are in between an untrained militia and a professional army.
The process in which a spiral groove is added to the barrel of a gun to help the bullet spin, increasing power, range, and accuracy.
Military tactic of attacking with little space between men. In the face of modern weapons used during the Civil War, such fighting produced a very high casualty rate.
Military activity relating to such things as the transporting, supplying, and quartering of troops and their equipment.
Metal money or coins, usually made of gold or silver.
Paper money used by the Union to help finance the Civil War. One type of treasury note was known as a greenback because of its green coloring.
Any kind of money that a creditor must by law accept in payment for debts.
Paper money, issued by banks, that circulates as currency.
The closing of a country's harbors by enemy ships to prevent trade and commerce, especially to prevent traffic in military supplies.
King Cotton Diplomacy
The South's political strategy during the early Civil War; it depended upon British and French dependency on southern cotton to the extent that those two countries would help the South break the blockade.
Fast ships designed to slip past the northern blockade of southern ports.
A US ship stopped a British ship that was carrying Southern diplomats. The US captain arrested the Southerners. Britain was outraged and demanded that the men be released. The incident almost caused a war between the US and England.
Monitor vs. Virginia
A battle between the world's first two ironclad ships. The battle took place at Hampton Roads. Because both ships had metal armor, they could not damage each other and the battle ended in a tie. The Virginia never fought in another Civil War battle.
A Virginia native that emerged as one of the confederacy's best generals in 1861 and 62. His brigade stopped the Union attack at Bull Run and allowed confederate forces to regroup for a counterattack. He was killed by his own men at Chancellorsville.
George B. McClellan
One of the most promising young officers in the US army. he became commander of Union armies in 1861. He organized the Army of the Potomac but was afraid of confrontation and lost a major battle at Bull Run.
One of the first major battles of the Civil War. The Union was about to claim a victory but Stonewall Jackson defended against an attack and allowed the confederates to counterattack. The confederates then beat the Union. The loss led to an increase in Union military recruitment and a reevaluation of leadership and strategy.
Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Great naval victories won by Grant. He used an infantry force and a force of river ironclads to take the two forts that guarded the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. These victories established Grant's reputation as a great general and allowed the Union to move ironclads throughout Alabama and occupy the region.
Ulysses S. Grant
A Union general who gained his reputation at Forts Henry and Donelson. He was eventually placed in charge of all the Union forces and was instrumental in winning the war for the Union. He was eventually elected president.
A battle where confederate forces that had been displaced by Grant's advance banded together under General Johnston and counterattacked Grant at Shiloh church. He was caught by surprise but was able to recover and eventually win over the course of the two day battle. The Union suffered more casualties than the confederacy, but the confederate general was killed and their army retreated, making it a Union victory.
Campaign headed by McClellan that began in 1862. It was the Union's attempt to stop the war early by going straight for Richmond by moving up the peninsula between the James and York Rivers. The campaign ultimately failed because of McClellan's poor leadership.
Nathan Bedford Forrest
A confederate cavalry commander that led raids to burn bridges, blow up tunnels, tear up railroad tracks, and capture or destroy Union supply depots.
Second Bull Run
Lincoln ordered the Army of the Potomac to pull out of Virginia to reinforce General Pope for an invasion of Virginia. To prevent this, Lee attacked before the Army of the Potomac could arrive. Lee was successful and decided to invade Maryland.
Contraband of war
Term used to describe slaves who came within the Union lines.
John C. Fremont
A Union general that was in command of Missouri in 1861. He freed all slaves in the state to deprive confederate sympathizers of their workforce and wealth. The order caused such a reaction that he had to take it back.
Idea that the federal government would offer compensation or money to states that voluntarily abolished slavery.
Led by U.S. Representative Clement L. Vallandigham of Ohio, they spoke out against the war. Their enemies called them Copperheads.
Term used by some Republicans to describe Peace Democrats to imply that they were traitors to the Union.
Battle in the confederate invasion of Maryland. Lee had split his force but McClellan waited long enough for his army to reunite before the battle. It was the bloodiest day in American history but a Union victory allowed Lincoln to issue his Emancipation Proclamation.
A formal order that declared all slaves to be set free in the Confederacy. This proclamation helped change the Civil War into a battle for freedom and made it impossible for Britain or France to back the confederacy.
A confederate city that was heavily fortified and protected the Mississippi River for the confederacy. Grant attacked it in 1862 but was unsuccessful in capturing it. He finally captured it in 1863 after a prolonged siege.
Government by military force rather than by elected officials. Usually imposed in unruly cities or during wartime in occupied cities.
People who buy items at low prices in the hope that the value will rise and they can sell the items for a profit. These people bought most of the land in early America and were accused of hoarding food in the South during the Civil War.
Twenty Negro Law
Confederate conscription law that exempted from the draft one white man on every plantation owning 20 or more slaves. Purpose was to overseers or ownerswho would ensure discipline over the slaves and keep up production but was regarded as discrimination in non-slaveholding families.
Men who enlisted in the Union army to collect the bounties offered by some districts to fill military quotas; these men would enlist and then desert as soon as they got their money.
$300 fee that could be paid by a man drafted into the Union army to exempt him from the current draft call.
New York Draft Riots
Riots by Irish immigrants and other poor whites over the draft and the rich's ability to avoid military service at the expense of the poor. For three days, mobs roamed New York and destroyed government buildings and attacked any government official or African American that they saw.
The Congress that enacted conscription, passed measures for emancipation and confiscation of slaves, created greenbacks, and the national banking system. They also passed the Blueprint for Modern America.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25. It was very important in encouraging settlement of Western lands and the expansion of immigration into the US.
Morrill Land Grant Act
Passed by Congress in 1862, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments. The states then sold the land in order to fund state agricultural and mechanical colleges (A+M). This led to an increase in free public education.
Pacific Railroad Act
Law passed by Congress in 1862 that gave loans and land to the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad companies to subsidize construction of a rail line between Omaha and the Pacific Coast.
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
America's first female physician, helped organize the US Sanitary Commission and the Women's Central Association for Relief to assit the Union armies in the field.
United States Sanitary Commission
Formed early in the war by civilians to help the Union's medical bureau, depended on women volunteers and helped to advance women's participation in modern society.
Rose O'Neal Greenhow
Entertained Union leaders in D.C. and picked up information about Union plans that she passed to the south. She got caught and was convicted of treason and exiled.
A major battle in the Civil War. The Confederates under Robert E. Lee defeated the Union forces under Joseph Hooker. Stonewall Jackson was killed by friendly fire.
Largest battle of the Civil War. A confrontation between Lee and Meade in Pennsylvania that lasted over three days. There were many different fronts such as Little Round Top, Culp's Hill, Devil's Den, and Cemetery Hill. The battle ended with Picket's charge when almost 10,000 confederates were killed. The battle ended Lee's invasion of Maryland and was the bloodiest battle of the war.
Union commander of the Army of the Potomac at the battle of Gettysburg. He won the battle and ended an invasion of the north. He was later replaced by Grant.
Confederate general that was ordered to attack the center of the Union line on the third day of Gettysburg. The attack was a disastrous failure and almost half of his entire division was killed. He is remembered for this attack.
A major two day battle outside of Chatanooga. Bragg and the confederates defeated Rosecrans and the Union army and forced them back into Chattanooga. It was the second deadliest battle of the Civil War and was a much needed victory for the Confederacy.
A battle that was almost the sequel to the battle of Chickamauga. Union forces that were surrounded by Bragg were reinforced by a few other Union armies and the whole grouping was put under the command of Grant. Grant's force was able to break the siege and defeated Bragg's army.
54th Massachusetts Infantry
A regiment of free African Americans that played a central role in the attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina. Received honorable mentions from US military.
A speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War. The speech supported the ideals of self-government and human rights.
1865 Constitutional amendment that outlawed all forms of involuntary work except as a legal punishment for a crime.
A series of battles in which Grant moved through Virginia and preyed on the much weaker confederate army. He won at Wilderness and Spotsylvania but was defeated at Cold Harbor.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Grant's second in command that introduced the concept of total war. He and his army moved through the South and destroyed anything they decided to be of any military value.
There were numerous peace negotiations in 1864 but Lincoln refused to accept anything except the restoration of the Union and the elimination of slavery. The South wouldn't accept these terms and so the negotiations ultimately proved to be unsuccessful.
Prison camps were terrible during the war. Because no established camps existed, camps had to be hastily built. Conditions were terrible and thousands of prisoners died from disease and lack of food.
Capture of Atlanta
After almost a month of stalemate around Atlanta, Sherman suddenly decided to attack the last rail link to Atlanta at Jonesbro. After losing all supply lines, Hood decided to abandon Atlanta to save his army.
A string of battles between Sheridan and Early where Sheridan followed Early's army and defeated it at every turn. His dramatic string of victories were a huge morale booster and helped win Lincoln 78% of the military votes in the election of 1864.
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman and his army marched through Georgia, to Atlanta, to Savannah, and into South Carolina and the city of Columbia. Along the way, they burned down or otherwise destroyed anything that could have possibly been considered of military value.
After the loss of Petersburg, Lee tried to take his army and join with other confederate armies that were still fighting. He was cut off by Sheridan and saw the entire Union army behind Sheridan's force. He was forced to surrender to Grant and the war ended at Appomattox on April 9th, 1865.
John Wilkes Booth
A famous actor and Maryland native that assassinated Lincoln. He hated Lincoln for what had been done to the South and conspired with several other men to kill the top officials of the US government. He killed Lincoln but the other men failed. He died in a burning barn ten weeks after Lincoln's death.
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