Ferdinand and Isabella
Spanish king & queen. Victory for catholicism at Granada. Funded Columbus's expeditions
Portugeuse sea captain hired by the Spanish. Discovered the straight that led them to discover Guam and the Philippines. (Because the Spanish wanted to find the passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific)
Indian warriors invaded by (and allied with??) Cortes. 4 small kindgdoms separate from the Aztecs.
Impact of horses on Great Plains tribes
Disruptive to the Native Americans - it increased mobility and the economy, but also intensified warfare.
Characteristics of Elizabeth I's Church of England
Political turmoil, religous tension, economic crises and foreign wars, yet the Golden Age followed. And she made a Protestant/ Catholic compromise.
Charles I of England
Even more stubborn defender of royal power than his father. Disbanded parliament and levied taxes by decree
Founded by King James I. A joint stock enterprise with a religous mission for the Native Americans but with a money making initiative. 1st permanent colony became Virginia.
Policy that anyone who bought a share in the company and could get to Virginia could have 50 acres
Defied Berkeley's authority (in Virginia) by assuming command of a group of frontier vigilantes. He insigated the Bacon Rebellion to drive out the Indians.
The founding of Maryland
In 1634, granted to Lord Baltimore by King Charles I. 1st proprietary colony (owned by an individual, not a joint stock company)
Led a group of English puritans who wanted refuge for their beliefs (charter for Massachusetts Bay company by King Charles I) - he made it self-governing
1st to cause problems - a very pure Puritan who wanted even more purity. He was an extreme individualist and wanted complete separation of church and state.
Another Puritan dissenter, but fought with Puritan leaders for other reasons. She radically said that God told her that only a few select people would be saved.
The Pequot War
Some settlers in Massachusetts accused a Pequot of murder. They set fire to a Pequot village and shot and killed many. The Pequots fought back but the English eventually wiped them out.
Hurons (Lake Ontario region)
Longhouses (framework of sticks, mats made of reeds, houses for extended familly), Central areas for gathering, Stockade resisting other tribes but not for guns, Sweathouses (spiritual renewal and healing)
Cherokees (Etowah, West Georgia)
Built up mounds for gathering - sense of community, defensive ditches and walls, worked with copper & used it for trade, carved stone effigies, stratified society
Built big cities with thousands, bigger than cities in Western Europe, extensive writing/math systems, astronomy, weapons, art/decorative clothing, Ancient Egypt of New World, very different from hunting/gathering tribes, stone pyramids, planned out cities, city center for gathering, calendar system from looking at stars, kings all the way to slaves/forced laborers, city gutters
Domesticated animal use/effects in New World
Transportation, food, fertilization of soil, trade, clothing, but diseases and warfare
Europeans brought knowledge of...
How to forge metals like iron (Indians only used metal for decoration)
2 theories of Why Europe colonized America and not another region
1. Specific aspects of European society and culture made it most likely to be the part of the Old World that reached out and developed America 2. Pure accident. America propelled Europe on its course of dominance.
What led Europe to America? And what aspects of Europe (part of theory 1) enabled them to do so?
Curiosity and ambition for Indies and Asia in order to spread christianity (time of Protestantism) and to make more money. Enabled by advances in technology at the time of the Age of Discovery - ships, navigation/maps, weapons. But, other areas of Europe were well developed and had technology too. Europe was unique in other ways... there was a rise of centralized nations (powerful rulers + merchant support) and growth in global trade that created the merchant class.
The Crusades/their effect on Europe's colonization
The spread of Christianity (forced). European armies sent to capture the Holy Land (Jerusalem) - their effect was that in order to take back Jerusalem, Europe had to make alliances with non Muslim groups and get involved in trading with them
How did Europe's unique system have a more empowered commercial class than other parts of the world?
The balance of power between the aristocracy and the merchant/commercial class was different in Europe. They had an empowered commercial class and the merchants wanted to find new trade routes, so the kings and queens had to listen to them (due to the power of the purse)
Chinese explorer and merchant who persuaded the Chinese government to build a huge fleet so that he could sail the Indian Ocean and around the tip of Africa. However, the Chinese government forbade future voyages because they believed people ouside of China were inferior and barbaric. They didn't want the Chinese knowing what was out there. Difference in their religion - not intending to spread it. (And they already were in control of their religous territory) A war between the state and merchant class followed.
Leader of Europe in overseas explorations in the 1400s. A new power arose (House of Avis) made alliances. The government threw itself behind the merchant class and their explorations.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portugeuse. Made systematic voyages down the West Coast of Africa and gathered information and gained experience. In 1500 he founded Brazil on a trip to India (?), and Newfoundland Canada.
He turned to Portugal because of their ideal and strategic geographical location for expeditions. However, he ended up convincing Spain to help him and they were interested in getting into contact with the Chinese and allying with them against the Muslims. He believed the earth was smaller than it is. He thought he could get to Asia & that an island called Antilla was halfway between Europe and the Bahamas.
Spanish and Portugeuse noble people who conquered lands that weren't Christian and where there were a lot of resources
Treaty of Tordesillias
The pope drew a line where the west side was the Spnish sphere of exploration and the east was for Portugal's exploration
Effect of Columbus's discovery
Prompted new focus for Europe to conquer more lands, rather than start commerce with China
Went on an exedition to MesoAmerica - 1519-1521. He conquered the massive Aztec empire and success largely due to the diseases he brought with him that killed the natives, his alliances with nearby civilizations (Tlaxcala) and his weapons. Even though he had a small number of men.
3 awkward aspects of Spain's empire...
1. They were overextended 2. The native population wasn't commercially oriented (hand to mouth subsistence) & they kept dieing from the diseases of the homeland 3. Spain itself wasn't commercially oriented either. Not as much investment for plantations, more so for mining. So most of their empire was undeveloped and rival nations had a big impact...
England's parliamentary system at the time of Finding America - "Mother of All Parliaments"
The king became to involve the commonfolk (chosen by property qualification) to sit together in the House of Commons along with the aristocrats in the House of Lords (born into it). [HOC chosen by shires and Towns- towns chosen by burgesses]. HOC + HOL = parliament. unique system at the time. And parliament had the abillity to tax the king. So they had "power of the purse". Model for representative government throughout the world
How was the role of parliament enhanced by religous changes and changed by the opinions of monarchs?
English monarchs always involved parliament because they wanted to be on good terms with them (And since parliament wanted to explore and improve the economy, the monarchs went along with it) So parliament therefore gained status and power (indirectly) especially with the religous turbulency at the time.
James I, Charles I --> more inclined to assert the power of the monarchy against Parliament. So they got into some trouble with Parliament. Especially Charles. He quickly alienated them...
The Petition of Right
in 1628 (in Charles I's reign) Parliament instated this which said no hidden taxation is allowed. Because he was doing it just because he felt like it and this allowed them to have it written down (earlier, the monarchs were friendlier to parliament without having it written down) Also, they stated their legal right to trial and even talked about civil rights.
Religion in England
In the 16th C, people began to question whether they were believing the right things and protests and arguments happened over religous preferences. The Reformation happened. A number of different Protestant groups trying to force their views. (Not about religous freedom yet). Kings turned to Parliament for religous break.
Church of England
Created by Henry 8 because of his wife drama. An "established church" - official status. Political head = religous head.
Mary 1 & the church...
took the church back towards Roman Catholic because she persuaded parliament to accept the pope again
Elizabeth I & the church...
Protestant compromise but with catholic ceremony. Spelled trouble once the Stuarts came to the throne.
Unhappiness at the time of the Tudors...
Elizabeth created a vague Church of England which made many people, especially Catholics, unhappy.
"Thwarting of the gun powder plot"
Small group of Catholics tried to blow up Parliament. Led by Guy Fawkes. Caught on Nov 5. Didn't actually happen.
English Civil War: 1642-48
Charles I made a lot of enemies especially with suspicious Puritans due to his attempt to reform. Political and religous issues.
1648-1660 - following the civil war
Army Rule. Led and held together by Oliver Gromwell (a Puritan). Puritans in charge. At first they worked with Parliament but then they separated. Gromwell's efforts fell apart after he died and the Puritans all fought amonst themselves, ultimately forming sects.
1660 - following Gromwell's death
HOL and HOC restored. Everything as it was but with the idea that Parliament needs to stay. Not so much power for the king. But back to the old system of king, parliament, and judiciary.
Larger context of why England got involved with the colonies
Seeking religous freedom (for themselves, but not for others)
Spain's role during Elizabeth's era
Spain was a threat. They tried to overthrow her because of her protestantism. England wanted to find some of the resources Spain was getting southward in order to survive the power struggle.
1st attempted colonization. Founded by Walter Raleigh. Primarily to attack Spanish ships coming in. A pirate base. Good place to attack the silver fleets. But failed - England was distracted due to Spain's attempted invasion; they put their efforts into defense rather than colonization.
First colony. 1607. Interest in finding a Native American civilization to invade and rule like Cortes with gold and silver to exploit. To compete with Spain. However, these N.A.'s were not a high civilization like the Aztecs. No gold or silver. **However, tobacco kept Jamestown going. (John ROlfe and Pocahontas...)
1620. Very small and not very successful, but famous. Pilgrims made a close alliance with the Wampanogs and together they went to war with Massachusetts.