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PSYC101 - Chapter 11
Terms in this set (64)
______ psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others.
When research participants were in a room filling with smoke, they were less likely to get help if they were alone than if another bystander was present.
The bystander effect makes it ______ (more/less) likely an individual will help someone in need when other people are around.
______ ______ is the area of social psychology that explores how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information.
Pam's new friend is a librarian, so Pam assumes that the person is intellectual, politically liberal, shy, not very social, and probably a vegetarian. What does Pam's thinking on this describe?
1) a self-fulfilling prophecy
What would a social psychologist be most likely to study?
1) physical and emotional development over a life span
2) the perception of sound waves in the ear canal
3) the traits and unconscious motives of an individual
4) personal attitudes and the perception of others
personal attitudes and the perception of others
A persuasion tool that involves making a small request at the beginning of a sale is called ______ the -in-the-door technique.
In "smoke-filled room" studies, smoke billowed from a vent in a room. If the research participant in the room was _____, they were more likely to get help quickly. If the participant was _____, they were likely to either take much longer to get help or not get help at all.
1) with another bystander; alone
2) happy; sad
3) sad; happy
4) alone; with another bystander
alone; with another bystander
Altruism is which of the following?
1) Giving aid to another person, even if it incurs a cost to oneself
2) Giving to another person to ensure reciprocity
3) Giving in to the request of another person
4) Adhering to social norms of expected behavior
Giving aid to another person, even if it incurs a cost to oneself
What is the tendency for individuals to not help someone in need if other people are around?
1) Bystander effect
3) Elaboration likelihood
4) Fundamental attribution error
Which of the following neurotransmitters and neurohormones are associated with prosocial behavior?
Social cognition is which of the following?
1) The study of human societies, organizations, and institutions
2) The study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
3) The way in which individuals think in social situations
4) The processes by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others
The way in which individuals think in social situations
What kinds of television shows or video games enhance prosocial thoughts and prosocial behavior?
1) those involving animations or animals
2) those with violent themes
3) those with positive content
4) those involving hunting/gathering themes
those with positive content
A(n) ______ is a generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any individual differences.
______ refers to social behavior whose objective is to harm someone physically or verbally.
A persuasion tool that involves making a big pitch at the beginning of a sale is called the ______-in-the-face technique.
Which of the following are cognitive factors linked to aggression? (Choose every correct answer.)
1) Observing others engaging in aggression
2) Unconscious thoughts and feelings
3) Lower levels of serotonin
4) Presence of a weapon
Observing others engaging in aggression
Presence of a weapon
______ is giving aid to another person with the ultimate goal of benefiting that person, even if it incurs a cost to oneself.
Which approach to aggression emphasizes the environmental conditions that teach individuals to be aggressive?
1) Instinct approach
2) Psychodynamic approach
3) Frustration-anger theory
4) Observational learning
High levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and oxytocin are related to prosocial behavior.
Aggression, like other social behaviors, has _____ determinant(s).
3) a single
True or false: Watching positive television shows or playing video games that value helping behavior enhances prosocial thoughts as well as helping behavior.
There is a(n) ______ relationship between playing violent video games and aggression, but this relationship does not imply causation.
Aggression is social behavior _____.
1) whose objective is to harm someone verbally
2) that is limited only to humans seeking to harm someone
3) whose objective is to harm someone physically
4) whose objective is to harm someone physically or verbally.
whose objective is to harm someone physically or verbally.
In Asch's famous research study, participants agreed with people making an incorrect choice in a line length judgment task. This study is a classic study of _____.
Anything that makes us think aggressive thoughts could be associated with aggression. The concept from cognitive psychology is ______: anything that makes something salient to a person.
The influence other people have on us because we want to be correct is referred to as _____.
3) normative social influence
4) informational social influence
informational social influence
The ______ learning approach to aggression emphasizes that social and environmental conditions can teach individuals to be aggressive.
The influence other people have on us because we want them to like us is _____.
2) informational social influence
4) normative social influence
normative social influence
Many experts insist that TV violence can prompt aggressive or antisocial behavior in children.
What is the social psychological term for a change in behavior in response to the commands of others?
There is a(n) _____ relationship between playing violent video games and aggression.
Researchers have criticized the results of the Stanford prison experiment by researching which of the following ideas?
1) That not telling participants the study was about prison life may have resulted in getting more passive participants
2) That recruiting for a study about "prison life" may have resulted in getting more altruistic participants
3) That recruiting for a study about "prison life" may have resulted in getting more aggressive participants
4) That not telling participants the study was about prison life resulted in participants feeling deceived and being more aggressive
That recruiting for a study about "prison life" may have resulted in getting more aggressive participants
In Asch's famous research study, participants agreed with people making an incorrect choice in a line length judgment task. This study is a classic study of ______.
_____ occurs when being part of a group reduces personal identity and erodes a sense of personal responsibility.
_______ social influence is the influence that other people have on us because we want them to like and approve of us.
Which of the following is an example of social contagion?
1) Exercising at home instead of the gym so you can avoid having to socialize
2) Painting a ceramic vase because painting relaxes you.
3) Studying for tomorrow's exam because you are too nervous to sleep
4) Choosing a Dalmatian puppy instead of another breed because people you admire on social media all have Dalmatians
Choosing a Dalmatian puppy instead of another breed because people you admire on social media all have Dalmatians
Miko has just transferred to a new high school and starts to dress and act like the popular students there because she wants them to like her. This is an example of ______ social influence.
Social ______ occurs when an individual's performance improves due to the presence of others.
______ is behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.
The Stanford prison experiment has been criticized because the advertisement mentioned specifically "______ life."
When several students are assigned to do a group presentation, only three of the four actually do the required work. A social psychologist would refer to this as social ______.
The term ______ is used to describe a process that occurs when being part of a group reduces personal identity and erodes the sense of personal responsibility. One explanation for this is that being a group member gives us anonymity.
_____ is a type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternate points of view.
1) Social loafing
2) Risky shift
The term social ______ describes an imitative behavior involving the spread of behaviors, emotions, and ideas. For example, this type of imitative behavior can be observed in the copying of unhealthy behaviors such as drinking and smoking among adolescents.
______ identity is a way individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership.
Social _____ is when an individual's performance improves in the presence of others.
Social identity theory suggests that we can engage in stereotyping by focusing on how our in-groups and out-groups are ______ rather than how they are ______.
______ is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on his or her group membership.
Social loafing occurs when an individual exerts less effort in a group because of the ______ (increased/reduced) accountability for individual effort.
_____ racism is a person's conscious and openly shared prejudicial attitudes.
______ is a type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view.
_____ racism refers to prejudicial attitudes that exist on a deeper, unconscious level.
When someone is asked to identify themselves and they answer with religious or ethnic group affiliations, they are stating their ______ identity.
Which of the following are contributing factors in prejudice?
1) Competition for resources that are scarce
2) Meaningful contact with diverse individuals
3) Feeling bad about oneself
4) Cultural learning
Competition for resources that are scarce
Feeling bad about oneself
Social identity theory suggests that we can engage in stereotyping by focusing on how our in-groups and out-groups are _____ rather than how they are _____.
1) similar; different
2) normative; informational
3) different; similar
4) informational; normative
In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that school segregation, in which Whites and Blacks attended separate schools, was unconstitutional. This illustrates which strategy to diminish the effects of prejudice and discrimination?
1) Punishing prejudiced behavior or speech
2) Increasing contact between majority and minority groups
3) Providing information about the targets of stereotyping
4) Making values and norms against prejudice more conspicuous
Increasing contact between majority and minority groups
Prejudice is which of the following?
1) An organized body of information stored in memory that biases the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled
2) An attitude directed toward an individual based on their membership in a particular group
3) A generalization about a particular group that does not consider variation between individuals
4) An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on his or her group membership
An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on his or her group membership
Researchers examined an intervention to reduce implicit prejudice. Which of the following was NOT a part of that intervention?
1) Underwent training to break prejudice habits
2) Were advised to list out-group stereotypes and think of individuals who fit the stereotype
3) Completed the Implicit Associations Test
4) Received their Implicit Associations Test scores
5) Were advised to seek out contact with members of the out-group
Were advised to list out-group stereotypes and think of individuals who fit the stereotype
______ racism is a person's conscious and openly shared prejudicial attitudes.
______ racism refers to prejudicial attitudes that exist on a deeper, unconscious level.
Which of the following has NOT been identified as a contributing factor in prejudice?
1) meaningful contact with diverse individuals
2) cultural learning
3) feeling bad about oneself
4) competition for resources that are scarce
meaningful contact with diverse individuals
Research consistently has shown that increasing the amount of interaction between people can ______ (increase or decrease) negative stereotyping.
Researchers examined an intervention to reduce implicit prejudice. What did participants do in this intervention, from start to finish?
1) Completed the Implicit Associations Test
2) Received their Implicit Associations Test
3) Underwent training to break prejudice habits
4) Were advised to seek out contact with members of the out-group
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