Egypt Test #1

Social Studies Egypt Test #1
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What they used to build GP (tools)
ramps, sledge
What pharaohs were wrapped with
food, games, clothing, scrolls,and games
what pyramids are
giant tombs
what Egyptian pyramids are perfectly aligned with
the north, east west, and south
How Egyptians symbolized a mummy moved onto a higher place
placed death mask over its face
Why Egyptians painted mummies' tombs with pictures of servants, food, and animals
they believed the dead need things in the afterlife
What was in canopic jars
a mummy's internal organs
What happened if a body wasn't preserved after death
the spirt would lose its identity in the afterlife
sarcophagus
a coffin
Order of pyramids
first - mastaba, second-the step Pyramid, last-great pyramids
a unique characteristic of the nile
the longest river in the world
direction of nile water flow
south to north
Nile river starts in...
Mountains in the South
Crook
a symbol that the Pharaoh was a shepherd (kept his people together)
Flail
the Pharaoh used the flail to cut the first grain
Why Egyptians respected the Pharaoh
believed the pharaoh was a son of the Re, the unity of the kingdom depended on a strong leader, he was a god on Earth
pharaoh
Egyptian king; means "great house"
dynasty
line of rulers from the same family
hieroglyphics
a system of writing made up of thousands of picture symbols developed by the Ancient Egyptians
papyrus
reed plant of the Nile River valley; used to make a form of papyrus
delta
area of fertile soil at the mouth of a river
deity
god or goddess
cataract
steep rapids formed by cliffs and boulders in a river
pharaoh (definition)
all powerful king in Ancient Egypt
Significance of Narmer's double crown
crown symbolized unity of Upper and lower Egypt; white helmet like crown represented Upper Egypt; open red crown represented Lower Egypt
what mummies were made to do
preserve the body for the afterlife; for the Ka to recognize the Ba in the afterlife
Ka
the soul or spirt
Ba
the body
Weighing of the Heart Ceremony
a ceremony where the person's heart was weighed against a feather; lighter heart= no afterlife, heavier heart= no afterlife, heavy heart was gobbled up by Ammut
Life was... for the afterlife
practice
Thooth
controlled wisdom; shown as an ibis bird or baboon
Horus
controlled the sky; shown as a falcon
Sekhmet
controlled medicine; shown as lion headed
Anubis
controlled funerals, death, embalming/mummification; shown as a jackal or wild dog
Egyptian afterlife
believed there was another world where life would be better than life on Earth; offered a place of peace and plenty
Book of Dead
collection of spells and prayers
How Egyptians worshipped Gods
built temples; left food sacrifices; carved statues of their gods; led festivals and parades
Hapi
god of Nile
Re
god of the Sun
Isis
god of loyal wife and mother; helped rule over afterlife with Osiris
Only thing left in the GP after it was robbed
a small statue
How many men worked on GP
100,000 men
During which season did they work
flood season
number of years it took for the GP to be built
23 years
number of blocks in the GP
2,000,000 blocks of stone
how much each stone weighed
2 1/2 tons; bottom stones=15 tons
who GP was built for
King Khufu
The place the tip of the pyramids led to
center of heavens
how Natron preserves bodies
dries up liquids and fats
Natron was like...
salt
What virtually all Egyptian mummies had in common
all rich or powerful in life
pyramid
huge stone structure built by the Ancient Egyptians to serve as a tomb
What the Nile provided
fresh water, food & fish, papyrus, protection, fertile soil, delta, good location, dependable
mummy
body that has been embalmed and wrapped in linen
Direction of wind blow
north to south
where Egyptian civilization was located
Nile River Valley
How the Egyptians expanded farmland
used irrigation canals
length of Nile
4,160 miles
where Nile empties into
Mediterranean Sea
Jobs of Pharaoh
carrying out certain rituals believed to benefit the Egyptians; appointing officials
the person who unified Upper and Lower Egypt
King Narmer
Animals who represented gods and goddesses
ibises, female hippos, sometimes male hippos, crocodiles, vultures, water buffalo
Osiris
god of dead
Why the invention of the Shaduf was important
made carrying heavy water easy
Nileometer
a tool used to measure the height of the river
What the Egyptian calendar was based on
farming along the Nile
How hieroglyphic writing differs from ours
they had pictures that stood for words
number of hieroglyphic symbols
700 symbols
uses for papyrus
making tools, scrolls, fuels, sandals, baskets, eating
embalming
process developed by the Ancient Egyptians of preserving a person's body
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