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AP US History Dohle Final
Terms in this set (54)
House of Burgesses-
First organized in 1619, it was the first institution of representative government in the English colonies. first step of new government away from England. Mini-parliament
individuals who contracted to serve a master for a period of four to seven years in return for payment of the servant's passage to America. precursor to African slaves because it made people become accustomed to the use of free labor
Members of an off shoot branch of Puritanism. They believed that the Church of England was too corrupt to be reformed and hence was convinced they must "separate" from it to save their souls
the first document of self-government in North America in 1620. Wrote by pilgrims, who were very religious. Yet it is a Civil Body Politic
a colony created when the English monarch granted a huge tract of land to an individual or group of individuals. Vast tracts of land in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and North and South Carolina were distributed in this way.
members of the Society of Friends, a radical religious group that arose in the mid-seventeenth century in Pennsylvania . Quakers focused on the Holy Spirit. Many Quakers began to accept aspects of Darwinism and atheism.
colonists in the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay area (Pilgrim separatists) began to settle and found a need to expand their land. Also they did not want native tribes to be a threat against them; thus the plotted an attack on the strongest tribe, the Pequots and killed or enslaved nearly all of this once abundant and powerful tribe.
King Philip's War
conflict between English colonists and Native Americans in New England In actuality, numerous tribes attacked at the same time, they were not all under the leadership of Metacom. A strong start by Indians did not last long. Lasted from 1675-1676 and colonists won=land taken from natives, and a large fatality of people for the natives (Massachusetts Bay colonies)
violent conflict in Virginia 1675-1676 beginning with settler attacks on Indians but culminating in a rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia's government. This was ex-indentured servants against the rich planters.
a series of laws pressed mainly in the southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to
defend the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them. The historical importance of this is these codes gave slave owners absolute power over them.
religious revival in colonial America striking first in the Middle Colonies and New England in the 1740s and then spreading to the southern colonies.
The importance of the Great Awakening is that it encouraged ideas of fairness and stressed the significance of an individual over the church. (Interjected emotion into religion)
economic system whereby the government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth. An example of mercantilism is the triangular trade.
items produced in the colonies and enumerated in acts of Parliament that could be legally shipped from the colony of origin only to specified locations. The importance of this was goods that came from England's North American colonies could only be shipped to England or colonies within the empire.
the voyage between West Africa and the New World slave colonies. The importance of the Middle Passage is this was the route that brought African slaves to the New World.
period of adjustment by Africans and Europeans to the New World. The significance of this is the immigrants were not used to the conditions in the New World and had to take time to adjust to this new world.
Sons of Liberty
Secret organizations in the colonies formed to oppose the Stamp Act, Historical Significance- first time they rebelled foundation for resistance by the colonists, organized demonstrations including erecting a liberty pole. Organized Boston tea party, made their first appearance in late 1767. Leader was Sammy Adams,
Those that remained loyal to Britain but lived in America. "lobsters" not liked by patriots; they were more "proper" to British customs. They were exiled after Revolution. Fueled Patriotic drive (tarred and feathered by colonists) in colonies
- leader of Shawnee tribe, led Indian defense against America fought with the British during War of 1812; organized confederacy of all tribes east of Mississippi
Articles of Confederation
Made states independent
Made federal government weak because they didn't want a monarchy and resemble the king
No executive branch or judicial court
Congress had little to no power because all states had their own currency (led to inflation). First government before Constitution (was so bad it led to the Constitution)
Embargo Act of 1807
denied American ships from exporting/importing goods in foreign ports. This made Britain and France angry as the leading nations of commerce with the United States. However, the policy proved to be unsuccessful because it took to long to work. The historical significance is that it led to the war of 1812
regional spokesperson for the North who created the Whig party along with Henry Clay. Webster believed in creating a political party that was the opposition of Jacksonian Democracy.Webster also believed in the bank of the United States and tariffs.
Believed in centralized government ;Northerners Elite pro-industrialist, believed America should switch to industrialism Alexander Hamilton
Opposed French action during French revolution. First of two party system. Messed up government
tenth president of the United States; He was also the first president born a US citizen,meaning he was the first of a new generation of American Presidents. Tyler also bought Texas and was the first Vice President to have to take office as President.
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. Eye opener to colonists of British oppression. Gave voice to people who were afraid to say anything. 2nd most sold book in America. Declaring independence, establish a republic, unify the states
Proclamation of 1763
Set aside land west of the Appalachian mountains as "Indian country" after the French and Indian war. This made colonists mad. Led to George Washington siding with the colonists. Colonists still moved in to the territory. This got people thinking that Britain shouldn't be controlling them (baby steps)
Tariff of Abominations
also known as the Tariff of 1828, this put a tax on foreign agricultural goods, giving the North and West an advantage in selling their goods to the South. This led to resentment of the North and put the North against the South.
the Sauk Native American military leader who fought Against the Americans in Illinois during the Black Hawk War. The historical significance was that it reinstated Native resistance against American expansionism and pushed for the Indian removal as well as contributed to the causes of the War of 1812.
Transcontinental Treaty of 1819
this treaty gave the US ownership of Florida from Spain. Also, the US gave Spain Texas and the US gained control of the Pacific Northwest.
John C. Calhoun
regional spokesperson for the South, an advocate of nullification, and pushed the North and South apart. He was in favor of the south seceding from the North. Also, Calhoun was the Vice President for Jackson, although they had different political views regarding nullification
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin which combined the literary style of the popular women's domestic novels of the time with details of slavery; active in antislavery work
regional spokesperson for the West, and one of the creators of the Whig Party. He believedin tariffs, internal improvements, and the bank of the United States. Clay was also part of the "corruptbargain" when John Quincy Adams was elected President and made Clay Secretary of State, a position that gave him an advantage for becoming president at a later election. Clay also was part of the Missouri Compromise, which was important because it kept the balance of the slave states versus free states
Free Soil Party
political party that was willing to allow slavery to continue in slave states because they supported the Union; opposed extending slavery to western territories
this was Jackson's way of stopping reckless land buying by demanding that public land must be bought using strictly gold and silver. This dried up credit and was one of the causes of the Panic of 1937
slave who fought for his freedom because he lived in territory that was a free state; was unsuccessful; because of this, many northerners began to question the power of the Supreme Court
reference to western New York where numerous religious and reform movements took place in the early 19th century
secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education who pioneered public education where public schools would be supported by public taxes
African American abolitionist; published An Appeal to the Colored citizens of the World which was a call for black unity and encouraged slave rebellion
John O' Sullivan
wrote newspaper article about manifest destiny and argued that Americans had a God-given right to bring the benefits of American democracy to other peoples (Mexicans and Indians)
leader of Democratic party; senator of Illinois; argued with Lincoln over slavery in the Lincoln-Douglas debates
The text's authors point out that "Puritanism was as much a set of social and political values as religious ones. Explain what they mean by this statement.
Socially, the Puritan family was well ordered. There was an emphasis on education and they made it a priority to educate the young. Also, the family operated on the combined efforts of the husband and wife. Men typically were responsible for fieldwork, and women were responsible to work in the household. Politically, they were a self-governing society, meaning that they are not controlled by another society. They believed the church and state should operate as one. Even though Puritanism was based on religious values, there were only social and political values along with it.
What is the connection between Thomas Hooker, Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and Samuel Gorton? Compare and Contrast.
The connection between Thomas Hooker, Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and Samuel Gorton is they were all influential puritans who established new colonies in order to protect their congregations due to disagreements. Thomas Hooker, who objected male suffrage to church members, led his followers to Hartford. Roger Williams, who was banished from Massachusetts for advocating religious tolerance, immigrated toward the country surrounding Narragansett Bay. He later established the independent colony of Rhode Island where one was guaranteed self-government and complete religious liberty. Anne Hutchinson, the wife of a Puritan merchant, criticized Boston ministers. This was due to the fact that the minsters preached the importance of good works which led to the idea that one could earn their way to heaven, something Hutchinson disagreed with. After being excommunicated, she led a group of followers to the colony on Narragansett Bay, the same colony where Roger Williams had relocated. Finally, Samuel Gorton was a civic leader of Rhode Island and was president of Providence and Warwick. All of these leaders immigrated away from Massachusetts to form new colonies with new religious beliefs. (they were all dissented)
John Winthrop's vision of reform, "a city on a hill" has remained a powerful vision for America. Twentieth century presidents have used that theme. Analyze the extent to which this Puritan vision has dominated the shaping of American life.
manifest destiny- decimation of the Native population justified through the idea that US was fated by God to conquer the continent/belief in an American destiny was shaped by the Puritan idea of exceptionalism, US foreign policy- America's duty to civilize the "uncivilized"/seem in 20th century with war in Korea/Vietnam/Iraq, and the politics of patriotism in the US today- election candidates refer to US as the greatest nation of the planet
Compare the New England colonies to the Chesapeake in terms of immigrants, economic base, and building of community.
New England and Chesapeake colonies differed in reasons for immigration, different economies, and different communities. New England colonies produced immigration because of religious purposes while the Chesapeake colonies had immigration because of a desire for wealth. Those that immigrated to New England were Puritans who left England during the Great Migration. This was different than the purpose of immigration to the Chesapeake colonies in that it was for the sole purpose of acquiring wealth. The two colonies had different economies in that New England's was based on fishing, ship building, and farming while Chesapeake's was based solely on tobacco. Also, Chesapeake's economy had a focus on slaves and white indentured servants) while slaves were not as prominent in New England. Another difference between the two colonies was New England's community was more family-oriented, while Chesapeake was focused strictly on making money. Also, religion played a larger role in the communities in New England than in Chesapeake.
Using your knowledge of social studies, explain how tighter British control led to a revolution in colonial America.
The American Revolution was from 1775-1783 between the American colonists and the British. This revolution ended with the American colonists gaining independence from Britain. One of the causes of the revolution was tighter British control for the colonists. This angered the colonists and prompted them to fight for their independence. Tighter British control led to a revolution in colonial America because of taxes, laws, and a monopoly on tea.
Taxes- tea act; colonists could only buy tea from British, Stamp Act- tax, stamped paper for legal documents, publications, and playing cards. Taxation without representation
Laws- quartering act; forced colonists to house soldiers and give them supplies. Another law that angered the colonists was the proclamation of 1763 which did not allow colonists to settle in lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. Intolerable acts closed the port of Boston and put Massachusetts under direct British control.
Monopoly on tea- tea act which forced colonists to only buy tea from Britain (bad tea). This inspired the sons of liberty to do Boston Tea Party. This was when colonists went aboard three British ships and dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the Boston harbor. This led to a revolution because this was how the colonists rebelled against the British which angered Britain. That was what sparked the rebellion
In what ways did the French and Indian War alter the political, economic, and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies?
1754-1763, this was the first war in North America between the French and the Indians who were supported by the British. This war over land ended with the treaty of Paris, which made France lose all its possessions on North American mainland. The French and Indian War gave the American colonies more political power in that they acquired new land, hurt their economy because of the British imposed taxes, and promoted a sense of nationalism among the colonist as the American colonies began to form its independent nation.
Political- France lost all its land and British colonies got it. This tightened their political relations because France was no longer competing for more land; rather it was the British against the colonists. Since most of the land belonged to the British, there were more disagreements between the British and colonists. There was also more conflicts with political power with leadership and who should be in charge of the land.
Economic- English began taxing the colonists because they needed money. England was low on money from the war and taxed the colonists in order to get money. An example of this is the Stamp Act which put a tax on all stamps and legal documents which cost the colonists more money. This tightened the economic relations between Britain and its American colonies because it angered the colonists who were tired of Britain taxing them but Britain wanted their money so they continued to tax. Another example is the Townshend act which put a tax on imported goods. A final example is the sugar act which complicated trade for American shippers by requiring them to fill out a number of confusing forms in order to legalize their shipments.
Ideological- sense of nationalism among colonists. After the French and Indian War, colonists wanted to stray from the British and become their own independent state. Important people in the war were George Washington who fought for British. After this war he decided to fight for independence in America and fought with the colonists. He was determined to help America become an independent nation free from British control. American soldiers felt ignored after Proclamation of 1763. Along with the war, the boycotts by the colonists was another reason for the increase of nationalism. Colonists would rebel against taxes like the sugar act by not purchasing any tea, which hurt Britain's economy. Knowing that they did have influence with the British, a sense of nationalism formed in the colonists
In what sense were political parties giant national men's clubs?
Political Parties were giant national men's clubs in that this was the start of a new democratic culture. This included mass campaigns and political rallies where there was a large distribution of foodand beverages (particularly alcohol). This led to rowdy politicians and nonprofessional behavior that canbe attributed to the fact that these political parties involved more than just the discussion of politics
Jackson often championed state's rights but drew the line at nullification.
Summarize his positions and evaluate his reasoning.
Jackson championed states' rights in that he allowed for state bank but he drew the line at nullification. The issue regarding nullification was the balance between the power of the federal government and the power of the individual states. Jackson was against nullification because he believed it was a threat to the nation's unity. Jackson's reasoning can be justified because having the federal government be in power will unify the nation because all the states have the same laws and rules which will keep them unified and keep them from making their own laws which would separate them politically.
What were the aims of the War Hawks? How many of then did they achieve?
Warhawks were interested in curtailling the impressment of our sailors
War hawks were interested in ending British support for Western Indians
They occupied florida and invade Canada (failed)
Discuss the extent to why it is and is not justifiable to call the Mexican-American War "Mr. Polk's War."
Is justifiable because....
Mexicans attacked American troops without provocation. 13 presidents in 14 years
Also refused to negotiate with Americans
Ralph Waldo Emerson predicted that "Mexico, will poison us." Earlier Thomas Jefferson feared "a fireball in the night." Discuss the problems referred to and how they manifested themselves in the 1848 election.
Problem of slavery in the territories
In conclusive nature of the candidates and parties in the Election of 1848. Both candidates were deliberately vague because they didn't want to lost votes
Explain the popularity of the concept of popular sovereignty as a way to resolve the issue of slavery in the territories. Why did it fail?
Popular sovereignty was based on the accepted constitutional principle that decisions should be made at the state rather than the national level
It failed because questions of morality and money don't lend themselves to the democratic process
Summarize the writings of and reaction to Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Evaluate Lincoln's comment to her, "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this a great war."
Americans had a god given right ti bring the benefits of American democracy to other more backward ppoeples (Mexicans and Indians) by force if necessary
Summed up the powerful combination and pride in what America had achieved and missionary zeal and racist attitudes towards other peoples
Analyze the statement of a border ruffian to a non-drinking William Phillips: "That's just it! This thing of temperance and abolitionism and the Emigrant Aid Society are all the same kind of thing."
"greatest book of the Age"
Explain the ideology of Manifest Destiny, the sentiments that supported it, and the reaction of politicians and public to it.
Americans had a god given right ti bring the benefits of American democracy to other more backward peoples (Mexicans and Indians) by force if necessary
Summed up the powerful combination and pride in what America had achieved and missionary zeal and racist attitudes towards other peoples
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