RNR 2102 Cao Exam 2

GIS stands for
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Terms in this set (85)
T/F - GIS is a computerized system for making maps.false- computer based system to store, manipulate, nd output geographical dataT/F GIS is a tool for storing maps and pictures.falseT/F - GIS is a computer-based system to store, manipulate, and output geographical data.trueT/F - GPS units used by the military have higher PDOP than normal GPS units.false- lowerT/F - GPS works better during the day, when the clouds help improve the signals.false- no clouds for good signalT/F - GPS cannot work at all in the forests, even if the canopy is sparse.false- can work under canopy, inaccurateT/F - The signals we obtain with normal GPS today contain random error introduced by the military.false- no longer contain random error from militaryT/F - Post-processing requires a special kind of GPS called Differential GPS.false- requires known location for adjustmentT/F - Measurements of Cartesian coordinates are in meters.trueT/F - Measurements of geographic coordinates are in degrees.trueT/F DOQQs are digital aerial photographs.trueT/F - A raster model consists of pixels and therefore can require a large amount of storage.trueT/F - A vector model consists of objects (points, lines, and polygons) that take up less storage.trueT/F - Metadata are a huge database that consists of both vector and raster models.falseT/F - Selective availability allows the GPS user to select the proper frequency (L1 or L2)false- SA= permission to have GPS without errorWhat is GPS? Explain the basis of GPS and how it works1.created by department of defense ,2. uses a constellation 30 satellites, 3.positioned about 20,200km above earth, 4. complete orbit every 12 hours, 5. maximum accuracy is 1 cm, 6. need 4 to 7 for a readingwhat are measurement offsetsmeasure distance and direction from a known location to an object of interest.what range should you ideally attempt to maintain PDOP within1 to 6, but the lower the PDOP the more accuratethe process of first collecting GPS data in the field and later applying corrections to those data is often termed ________________post processingwhat is selective avaiabilityonly those who get permission can know the exact location and use selective availability; no longer in usewhat is multi path errorsignals reflecting off obstruction before reaching GPS: unable to correctWhy are survey-grade GPS more accurate than commercial-grade GPS?because survey grade GPS is capable of receiving both L1 and L2Differential GPS a. relies on use of base stations in addition to the GPS receiver b. the GPS data are adjusted in real time c. generally results in increased accuracy of geographic fixes d. all of the above e. none of the aboved.a ___________________ is a smooth, mathematical representation of the earths surface that best fits the global mean sea levelgeoidA is a set of referenced points against which position measurements were made.geodetic datumwhat are the main differences between NAD27 and NAD83?NAD27 is based on 25,000 locations and is referenced to meades ranch, kansas NAD83 is based on 270,000 locations and is referenced to the earths centerthe difference between NAD 83 and WGS84 can be up to 10 metersfalse, 1 meterwhat are the 3 most common projections used in North America? what are the differences among these projections?1. NAD27-based on 25,000 locations and is referenced to central location (meades ranch, kansas) 2. NAD83- based on 270,000 locations and is referenced to the earths center 3. WGS84-refernced to the center of the earth and was a default system for many GPS unitslist 2 types of coordinate systems1. cartesian x and y 2. geographic lat-longUTM divided that earth into ______ zone and the continuous US into ______ zones60;10a GIS provides four basic capabilities. what are they1. input2. management3. manipulation and analysis4. outputwhat is a dangling arcdangling acr is not connected to another arcwhat is an island arcisland arc is a polygon enclosed completely within another polygonwhat is a metadatadata about datawhat is a raster modelmap divided into square cells or pixels; each cell has a condition that is representedwhat is a vector modelobjects or conditions represented by points and lines that define boundaries; geographic objects are represented by points, lines, and polygonsname the elements that can be used to recognize an object on an aerial photoshape, size, patterns, shadows, tones and colors, associations, textures and sitesthe mean is measure of __________ of the distributioncenterthe variance is a measure of _______________ of the distributionspreadCentral Limit TheoremThe theory that, as sample size increases, the distribution of sample means of size n, randomly selected, approaches a normal distribution.significance of CLTlarge sample, x (bar) is normal, can test hypothesisif you fail to reject the null hypothesis, what else can you do to be able to reject Ho at the same a level?increase sample sizeT/F for a two tailed test, the null hypothesis is rejected when tcalculated<t tabulatedfalseT/F when 95% confidence interval for u contains c, a test if u=c will be rejected at the 5% levelfalseat the same alpha level, it is ____ (easier, more difficult) to reject Ho for a one tailed test as compared to a two tailed testeasierfor a two tailed test, if the critical t value from the t-table is 2.01, and the calculated t value is -2.34, then we should _______ (reject, fail to reject) the null hypothesisrejectstreamflowflow rate of water along a natural channelwatershedan area of land that collects and discharges water through one outletgive an example of unit of measurement for loadmass/time ie. tons/daygive an example of unit of measurement for concentrationmass/volume ie. pound/m^2give examples of some common problem with water quality: inorganic sedimenttrash, plastic, or chemicalsgive examples of some common problem with water quality: organic sedimentfertilizer runoffs from farmsgive examples of some common problem with water quality: dissolved oxygencan result in hypoxiagive examples of some common problem with water quality: chemical pollutantsheavy metals from factoriesgive examples of some common problem with water quality: nutrientsnitrogen and phosphorus cause algae bloomspoint source pollutionpollution that comes from a specific sitenon-point source pollutionwater pollution that does not have a specific point of originBMP stands for _________. definebest management practices; practices that reduce or prevent pollutionTMDL stands for _______. definetotal maximum daily load; the amount of pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standardsT/F result from electrofishing can be considered as an estimate of fish densityfalse- estimate of fish indexT/F the pulse frequency of electrofishing can be selected to target a certain fish species or sizetrueSecchi disk is used to measure water a. temperature. b. turbidity b. conductivity. c. pH.bT/F toxicants such as rotenone is appropriate in fast moving water because they can be spread quicklyfalse- fast moving water makes chemical dissipate fasterT/F rotenone kills fish that cannot be consumed later because of poisonous residuetrueT/F primacord is the brand name of a toxicant for killing fishfalse- rotenoneactive or passive net: seinesactiveactive or passive net: gill netspassiveactive or passive net: hoop netspassiveactive or passive net: trawlsactiveactive or passive net: fyke netpassiveactive geargo to the fishpassive gearfish come to youwhich of the following items is not measured by hydrolab? a. water temperature b. substrate physical properties c. conductivity d. pH e. dissolved oxygenbWhat is the biggest problem in sampling animal populations?animals live in groups (they are not independently distributed)Which of the following assumptions is not true in the Mark-Recapture method? a. Population is closed (no birth, death, emigration, nor immigration). b. All animals have the same probability of being caught. c. Marking affects the chance of catching the animal at time 2. d. Animals do not lose their markc