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Unit 2: Population Patterns & Processes

Unit 1 (Population Patterns & Processes) flashcards for Advanced Placement Human Geography for Mr. Rodriguez. Definitions and Terms taken from the seventh edition of Human Geography: Culture, Society & Space by H.J. de Blij &Alexander B. Murphy. Flashcard Set by Crissy Peters (Hour 3).
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Demography
The study of population.
Census
A period count of the current population.
Population Density
The number of individuals per unit area.
Arithmetic Population Density
The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area.
Physiologic Population Density
The number of people per unit area of arable land.
Population Composition
Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties. (ex. marital status and education)
Age-Sex Pyramid
A graphic representation of the age & sex of a population.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Infant Mortality
The death rate of infants in their first year of life.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Demographic Transition (cycle)
A model of the effect of economic development on population growth based on births, deaths, and other statistics.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Exponential Growth
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate.
Linear Growth
Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.
Natural Increase
The growth rate of a population; the difference between birthrate and death rate.
Population Explosion
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century.
Stationary Population Level (SPL)
The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
Absolute Direction
A compass direction such as north or south.
Relative Direction
Direction based on a person's perception of an area.
Absolute Distance
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
Relative Distance
Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.
Push Factors
Negative conditions and perceptions that cause residents to move away.
Pull Factors
Positive conditions and perceptions that cause residents to move in.
Activity (Action) Space
The space within which daily activity occurs.
Cyclic Movement
Movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally. (ex. nomadism)
Nomadism
Movement among a definite set of places. (example of cyclic movement)
Seasonal Movement
Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis. (example of cyclic movement)
Migration
Movement from one area to another.
Emigration
Movement from an area, especially migration, from your native country in order to settle in another.
Forced Migration
When people are removed from their countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government. (ex. Atlantic Slave Trade, Jewish Diaspora)
Voluntary Migration
Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
Internal Migration
Movement within a nation-state, such as westward and southward movements in the US.
External Migration
Migration across an international border.
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Step Migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages. (ex. from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city)
Counter Migration
Migration back to an original area in which people had left. (ex. migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time)
Intervening Opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Refugee
Person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster.
Temporary Refugees
Refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement.
Permanent Refugees
Person or persons who have been permanently displaced from their home.
International Refugees
Refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation.
Intranational Refugees
Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.
Immigration Laws
Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.
Eugenic Population Policy
Government policy designed to favor one racial sector over others.
Expansive Population Policy
Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth.
Restrictive Population Policy
Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase. (ex. Chinese can only have 1 child)
Negative Population Growth
The decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive deaths.