53 terms

Lindsay's AP Psychology Unit 7A

flashbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning
retention of encoded information over time
process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing
long-term memory
relatively permanant and limitedless storehouse of the memory system
working memory
newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequence
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention conscious effort
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding
encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
memory aids; like vivid imagery
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
neural center that is located in limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
mood-congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
proactive interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
Parallel Processing
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, doing many things at once
Maintenance Rehearsal
The process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about a piece of information.
Elaborative Rehearsal
A memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over.
Primacy Effect
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series.
Declarative Memory
It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events.
Procedural Memory
A type of long-term memory of how to perform different actions and skills. Essentially, it is the memory of how to do certain things.
Episodic Memory
A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.
State Dependent Memory
Learning that takes place in one situation or "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar situation or state.
Decay Theory
The act of forgetting something as the memory fades with time
Richard Atkinson
Atkinson's most fundamental and far-reaching contribution to cognitive psychology is the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (with Richard M. Shiffrin), one of the most significant advances in the study of human memory. It put a theory of memory on a mathematical basis for the first time.
Herman Ebbinghaus
He was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve.
Karl Lashley
He was an American psychologist and behaviorist well-remembered for his influential contributions to the study of learning and memory. His failure to find a single biological locus of memory in the rat's brain (or "engram", as he called it) suggested to him that memories were not localized to one part of the brain, but were widely distributed throughout the cerebral cortex.
Elizabeth Loftus
She is an American psychologist and expert on human memory. She has conducted extensive research on the misinformation effect and the nature of false memories.
Oliver Sacks
Oliver Sacks, M.D. is a physician, a best-selling author, and professor of neurology and psychiatry at the Columbia University Medical Center. He is best known for his collections of neurological case histories, including The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat (1985), Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain (2007) and The Mind's Eye (2010). Awakenings (1973).
Daniel Schacter
He is an American psychologist. His research has focused on psychological and biological aspects of human memory and amnesia, with a particular emphasis on the distinction between conscious and nonconscious forms of memory and, more recently, on brain mechanisms of memory distortion.
the mental capacity or faculty of retaining and reviving facts, events, impressions, etc., or of recalling or recognizing previous experiences.