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LEC #4: Medical Anthro
Terms in this set (64)
What is Medical Anthroplogy?
A specialty of anthro that concerns itself with human health- the factors that contribute to disease or illness and the ways that human populations deal with illness or disease
What are examples of this?
what is Health?
a state of physical/ emotional and mental well-being, together with an absence of disease or disability that would interfere with such well-being.
REMEMBERING SHAMIDAR 1
What can we derive from this in a medical anthro standpoint?
In Kinship/Family: it is an old example of treatment and how it was in the past
How do we get from unhealthy to healthy
DEVIATIONS OF HEALTH
What are the four deviations of health?
forms of biological impairment identified and explained within the discourse of biomedicine (medical practice based on biology)
classifications of physical, mental, and emotional distress recognized by members of a particular community
the forms of physical, mental, or emotional distress experienced by individuals who may or may not subscribe to biomedical understanding of disease
Ex: Australian gov and Kuru: prob would have dealt with Kuru better if they though about suffering (what is happening to people) instead of the disease
A suffering person's own understanding of his or her distress
Ex: comparing your cold to whoever's cold
Ex: Kuru: sorcery versus sickness
What are ethnomedical systems?
alternative medical systems based on practices of social sociocultural groups
Western forms of medical knowledge and practice based on biological science
What are two examples of Ethno.?
1. Go to curers to deal with Kuru (treatments = Ethno. system)
2. Acupuncture spiritual healing
3. Bio: medicine
what is it?
a cross culturally specific causal expanation for health problems and suffering
What is an example that we talked about in class? Specific regions?
How do they show specific causal explanations for health problems and suffering?
Natural: Environment, age, heredity, gender, contagion
socioeconomic: Lack of resources, poor sanitation, lack of health care (Ec; "many illnesses there are many poor"
Supernatural: spirits and magic
what is it?
sicknesses (and the therapies relative to them) that are unique to a particular cultural group
What is Somatization (embodiment)
process through which the body absorbs social stress and manifests symptoms of suffering
One example is Susto, which is also called the what?
Susto literally means
where is it found?
Spain, portugal, and among Latino people
What is it attributable with?
Losing a loved one or having a bad accident
loss of appetitie, generalized pain, lack of motivation, nightmares, and breathing problems
What can be said about Susto in Oaxacca, Mexico?
Most people afflicted with Susto are socially marginal
Or failing a role
Fore example, a woman who suffered a spontaneous abortion would be worried about having children in the future
RETIRED HUSBAND SYDROME? Where is this found and what is it?
It is found in Japan among older women whose husbands are retired
where else can you find this?
In the US and other places (just recently started to be found)
ulcers, slurred speech, rashes around the eyes, and throat polyps
what can be said about the husbands related to this disease?
After working their whole lives and being the expected bread winner, the husbands feel a sense of uselessness.
wives are expected to do what? And what other ideas can we derive from this?
CATER; related to traditional gender roles (which are gradually fading, but still prevalent)
They are basically living together for the first time
CUTLURE BOUND SYNDROMES IN THE WEST
What is one syndrome that was found in Western societies?
it is typically found among whom?
middle class adolescent girls in the US
sometimes seen in black girls or adolescent boys, and globalization has spread the syndrome to areas of japan and india
self-percetion of fatness, aversion of food, as it progresses, wasting of the body and death
Nobody is sure why this occurs, but what are two hypothesises?
1. Controlling parents
2. Societal Pressure
CUTLURE SPECIFIC PREVENTION: AWAS
What is Awas?
Among the Maya in Guatamala, Awas are a common illness among children
A whole variety is based on what?
the insult to the mother
What do people think the underlying causes are?
things that happened to the mother while she was pregnant
What are examples of this?
May have been denied of food she wanted
Encountered a rude, drunk, or angry person
What do the Maya do to prevent this syndrome?
They are very considerate to preggos
CULTURE SPECIFIC PREVENTION: WIDOW GHOSTS
What is the story behind the widow ghosts?
In 1990, villagers heard radio reports of unexplained deaths of Thai migrant men working in Singapore. People thought these deaths were from widow ghosts.
What are they?
They are specific types of phii (spirit) recognized in Thailand
what do they do?
They roam and search for men they can take as their husbands and have sex with them until death
What is an example of their actions?
a healthy man dies in his sleep, people blame the widow ghost who came and had extreme sex with them
What did mary beth mills do for this?
She left the village after she was studying this for a few days, and she came back to find all 200 houses were decorated with penuses in order to protect the mean from attacks
CULTURALLY DIFFERING PERCEPTIONS OF SELF
What have anthropologists found related to beliefs and practices?
they are associated with health and VERY closely tied to idea about the body
There are four examples that we talked about in class about Differing perceptions of Body
1. Gotai: Bodily intactness in life and death; low rates of surgery in japan compared to US
2. C-sections in Brazil: Less destructive of female sexuality; the reason for this is bc they view their vaginas for sex only and we have lower rates of this because we view our vaginas for the purpose of birth
3. Mental Illness: Separate fields; without seperation, treatment is more holistic
ANTHRO OF CHILDBIRTH
Why is this a great example?
it is an illustration of how our local perceptions of the body effect the process of childbirth.
Biology speaking, every woman gives birth in the same way, but two this process is handled is entirely culturally dependent
Examples: Birth in four different cultures.. Which four are we going to focus on?
birth frequently sen a medical procedure where woman are patients reliant on the assistance of medical professionals
seen as an entirely natural process, they may give birth in a hospital, but it is not seen as a medical procedure
seen as a personal and fulfilling achievement. Obstetrics wards are quiet and focused on the process
stressful/painful, but its parts of normal life, Birth is usually taking place at home and with family.
what is structural suffering?
health problems caused by powerful economic and political forces such as poverty, war, terrorism, etc.
What is Sufriend del Agua?
Suffering from water- prevalent among women in the valley of Mexico
Cause is from an unreliable source of water for cooking washing, etc.
Women count on water to come from their taps, and this causes anxiety and nervous tension
A deeper, underlying cause is structural
-developmental of the Valley of Mexico
Read more about it on page 27
What is meant by Globallism and change?
People in the world are well concerned
What subject does this bring up?
Medical Pluralism: refers to the presence of several, separate health systems with a society
Sets found in the same folder
Lec. 1: What is Anthropology?
What is culture and why is it important?
LEC #3: Milstone 1 Bipedality
Lec #4: The Mechanisms of Evolution
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