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Iggy Ch. 64 NCLEX Qs: Care of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (test bank questions)
Terms in this set (50)
Because the brain cannot synthesize or store significant amounts of glucose, a continuous supply from the body's circulation is needed to meet the fuel demands of the central nervous system. The nurse would want to educate the client to prevent hypoglycemia. The body can use other sources of fuel, including fat and protein, and glucose is not involved in the production of red blood cells. Glucose in the blood will encourage glucose metabolism but is not directly responsible for lactic acid formation.
A nurse is teaching a client with diabetes mellitus who asks, "Why is it necessary to maintain my blood glucose levels no lower than about 60 mg/dL?" How should the nurse respond?
a. "Glucose is the only fuel used by the body to produce the energy that it needs."
b. "Your brain needs a constant supply of glucose because it cannot store it."
c. "Without a minimum level of glucose, your body does not make red blood cells."
d. "Glucose in the blood prevents the formation of lactic acid and prevents acidosis."
Hyperglycemia causes hyperosmolarity of extracellular fluid. This leads to polyuria from an osmotic diuresis. The client's serum osmolarity is high. The client's sodium would be expected to be high owing to dehydration. Serum creatinine and urine ketone bodies are not related to the polyuria.
A nurse reviews laboratory results for a client with diabetes mellitus who presents with polyuria, lethargy, and a blood glucose of 560 mg/dL. Which laboratory result should the nurse correlate with the client's polyuria?
a. Serum sodium: 163 mEq/L
b. Serum creatinine: 1.6 mg/dL
c. Presence of urine ketone bodies
d. Serum osmolarity: 375 mOsm/kg
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in North America. All clients with diabetes, regardless of age, should be examined by an ophthalmologist (rather than an optometrist or optician) at diagnosis and at least yearly thereafter.
After teaching a young adult client who is newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the nurse assesses the client's understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a correct understanding of the need for eye examinations?
a. "At my age, I should continue seeing the ophthalmologist as I usually do."
b. "I will see the eye doctor when I have a vision problem and yearly after age 40."
c. "My vision will change quickly. I should see the ophthalmologist twice a year."
d. "Diabetes can cause blindness, so I should see the ophthalmologist yearly."
Diabetic neuropathy is common when the disease is of long duration. The client is at great risk for injury in any area with decreased sensation because he or she is less able to feel injurious events. Feet are common locations for neuropathy and injury, so the nurse should inspect them for any signs of injury. After assessment, the nurse should document findings in the client's chart. Testing sensory perception in the hands may or may not be needed. The health care provider can be notified after assessment and documentation have been completed.
A nurse assesses a client who has a 15-year history of diabetes and notes decreased tactile sensation in both feet. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Document the finding in the client's chart.
b. Assess tactile sensation in the client's hands.
c. Examine the client's feet for signs of injury.
d. Notify the health care provider.
Risk for type 1 diabetes is determined by inheritance of genes coding for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ tissue types. Clients who have one parent with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for its development. Diabetes (type 1) seems to require interaction between inherited risk and environmental factors, so not everyone with these genes develops diabetes. The other statements are not accurate.
A nurse cares for a client who has a family history of diabetes mellitus. The client states, "My father has type 1 diabetes mellitus. Will I develop this disease as well?" How should the nurse respond?
a. "Your risk of diabetes is higher than the general population, but it may not occur."
b. "No genetic risk is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus."
c. "The risk for becoming a diabetic is 50% because of how it is inherited."
d. "Female children do not inherit diabetes mellitus, but male children will."
Hyperglycemia is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of long-term diabetic complications. Maintaining tight glycemic control will help delay the onset of complications. Restricting fluid intake is not part of the treatment plan for clients with diabetes. Preventing hypoglycemia and ketosis, although important, are not as important as maintaining daily glycemic control.
A nurse teaches a client who is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Which statement should the nurse include in this client's plan of care to delay the onset of microvascular and macrovascular complications?
a. "Maintain tight glycemic control and prevent hyperglycemia."
b. "Restrict your fluid intake to no more than 2 liters a day."
c. "Prevent hypoglycemia by eating a bedtime snack."
d. "Limit your intake of protein to prevent ketoacidosis."
Diabetes is a particular problem among African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians. The incidence of diabetes increases in all races and ethnic groups with age. Being both an American Indian and middle-aged places this client at highest risk.
A nurse assesses clients who are at risk for diabetes mellitus. Which client is at greatest risk?
a. A 29-year-old Caucasian
b. A 32-year-old African-American
c. A 44-year-old Asian
d. A 48-year-old American Indian
Small particles of blood can adhere to the monitoring device, and infection can be transported from one user to another. Hepatitis B in particular can survive in a dried state for about a week. The client should be taught to avoid sharing any equipment, including the lancet holder. The client should be taught to wash his or her hands before testing. The client would not need to blot excess blood away from the strip or wear gloves.
A nurse teaches a client about self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Which statement should the nurse include in this client's teaching to prevent bloodborne infections?
a. "Wash your hands after completing each test."
b. "Do not share your monitoring equipment."
c. "Blot excess blood from the strip with a cotton ball."
d. "Use gloves when monitoring your blood glucose."
NSAIDs potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylurea agents. Glipizide is a sulfonylurea. The other statements are not applicable to glipizide.
A nurse teaches a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus who is prescribed glipizide (Glucotrol). Which statement should the nurse include in this client's teaching?
a. "Change positions slowly when you get out of bed."
b. "Avoid taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)."
c. "If you miss a dose of this drug, you can double the next dose."
d. "Discontinue the medication if you develop a urinary infection."
Nateglinide is an insulin secretagogue that is designed to increase meal-related insulin secretion. It should be taken immediately before each meal. The medication should not be taken without eating as it will decrease the client's blood glucose levels. The medication should be taken before meals instead of during meals.
After teaching a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus who is prescribed nateglinide (Starlix), the nurse assesses the client's understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a correct understanding of the prescribed therapy?
a. "I'll take this medicine during each of my meals."
b. "I must take this medicine in the morning when I wake."
c. "I will take this medicine before I go to bed."
d. "I will take this medicine immediately before I eat."
Thiazolidinediones (including pioglitazone) can affect liver function; liver function should be assessed at the start of therapy and at regular intervals while the client continues to take these drugs. Dark urine is one indicator of liver impairment because bilirubin is increased in the blood and is excreted in the urine. The nurse should check the client's most recent liver function studies. The nurse does not need to assess for pain or burning with urination and does not need to check the urine for occult blood. The client does not need to be told to increase water intake.
A nurse cares for a client who is prescribed pioglitazone (Actos). After 6 months of therapy, the client reports that his urine has become darker since starting the medication. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Assess for pain or burning with urination.
b. Review the client's liver function study results.
c. Instruct the client to increase water intake.
d. Test a sample of urine for occult blood.
Even when a single injection of insulin contains a combined dose of different-acting insulin types, the timing of the actions and the timing of food intake may not match well enough to prevent wide variations in blood glucose levels. One dose of insulin would not be appropriate even if the client decreased carbohydrate intake. Additional injections are not required to allow the client practice with injections, nor will one dose increase the client's risk of insulin shock.
A nurse cares for a client with diabetes mellitus who asks, "Why do I need to administer more than one injection of insulin each day?" How should the nurse respond?
a. "You need to start with multiple injections until you become more proficient at self-injection."
b. "A single dose of insulin each day would not match your blood insulin levels and your food intake patterns."
c. "A regimen of a single dose of insulin injected each day would require that you eat fewer carbohydrates."
d. "A single dose of insulin would be too large to be absorbed, predictably putting you at risk for insulin shock."
The abdominal site has the fastest rate of absorption because of blood vessels in the area, not because of its proximity to the pancreas. The other statements are accurate assessments of insulin administration.
After teaching a client with diabetes mellitus to inject insulin, the nurse assesses the client's understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching?
a. "The lower abdomen is the best location because it is closest to the pancreas."
b. "I can reach my thigh the best, so I will use the different areas of my thighs."
c. "By rotating the sites in one area, my chance of having a reaction is decreased."
d. "Changing injection sites from the thigh to the arm will change absorption rates."
The client's blood glucose level is dangerously low. The nurse needs to administer glucagon IM immediately to increase the client's blood glucose level. The nurse should insert a new IV after administering the glucagon and can use the new IV site for future doses of D50 if the client's blood glucose level does not rise. Once the client is awake, orange juice may be administered orally along with a form of protein such as a peanut butter.
A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus and notes the client only responds to a sternal rub by moaning, has capillary blood glucose of 33 g/dL, and has an intravenous line that is infiltrated with 0.45% normal saline. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Administer 1 mg of intramuscular glucagon.
b. Encourage the client to drink orange juice.
c. Insert a new intravenous access line.
d. Administer 25 mL dextrose 50% (D50) IV push.
Insulin is relatively stable when stored in a cool, dry place away from light. When refrigerated, prefilled plastic syringes are stable for up to 3 weeks. They should be stored in the refrigerator in the vertical position with the needle pointing up to prevent suspended insulin particles from clogging the needle.
A nurse cares for a client with diabetes mellitus who is visually impaired. The client asks, "Can I ask my niece to prefill my syringes and then store them for later use when I need them?" How should the nurse respond?
a. "Yes. Prefilled syringes can be stored for 3 weeks in the refrigerator in a vertical position with the needle pointing up."
b. "Yes. Syringes can be filled with insulin and stored for a month in a location that is protected from light."
c. "Insulin reacts with plastic, so prefilled syringes are okay, but you will need to use glass syringes."
d. "No. Insulin syringes cannot be prefilled and stored for any length of time outside of the container."
Having the same needle remain in place through the skin for longer than 3 days drastically increases the risk for infection in or through the delivery system. Having an insulin pump does not require the client to test for ketones in the urine. Insulin should not be frozen. Insulin is not buffered.
A nurse teaches a client who is prescribed an insulin pump. Which statement should the nurse include in this client's discharge education?
a. "Test your urine daily for ketones."
b. "Use only buffered insulin in your pump."
c. "Store the insulin in the freezer until you need it."
d. "Change the needle every 3 days."
Exercise is not contraindicated for this client, although modifications based on existing pathology are necessary to prevent further injury. Swimming or water aerobics will give the client exercise without the worry of having the correct shoes or developing a foot injury. The client should not exercise too vigorously.
After teaching a client who has diabetes mellitus and proliferative retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy, the nurse assesses the client's understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a correct understanding of the teaching?
a. "I have so many complications; exercising is not recommended."
b. "I will exercise more frequently because I have so many complications."
c. "I used to run for exercise; I will start training for a marathon."
d. "I should look into swimming or water aerobics to get my exercise."
Ketoacidosis decreases the pH of the blood, stimulating the respiratory control areas of the brain to buffer the effects of increasing acidosis. The rate and depth of respiration are increased (Kussmaul respirations) in an attempt to excrete more acids by exhalation. Tremors, elevated temperature, and orthostatic hypotension are not associated with ketoacidosis.
An emergency department nurse assesses a client with ketoacidosis. Which clinical manifestation should the nurse correlate with this condition?
a. Increased rate and depth of respiration
b. Extremity tremors followed by seizure activity
c. Oral temperature of 102° F (38.9° C)
d. Severe orthostatic hypotension
When the lungs can no longer offset acidosis, the pH decreases to below normal. A client who has diabetic ketoacidosis would present with arterial blood gas values that show primary metabolic acidosis with decreased bicarbonate levels and a compensatory respiratory alkalosis with decreased carbon dioxide levels.
A nurse assesses a client who has diabetes mellitus. Which arterial blood gas values should the nurse identify as potential ketoacidosis in this client?
a.pH 7.38, HCO3- 22 mEq/L, PCO2 38 mm Hg, PO2 98 mm Hg
b.pH 7.28, HCO3- 18 mEq/L, PCO2 28 mm Hg, PO2 98 mm Hg
c.pH 7.48, HCO3- 28 mEq/L, PCO2 38 mm Hg, PO2 98 mm Hg
d.pH 7.32, HCO3- 22 mEq/L, PCO2 58 mm Hg, PO2 88 mm Hg
The rapid, deep respiratory efforts of Kussmaul respirations are the body's attempt to reduce the acids produced by using fat rather than glucose for fuel. Only the administration of insulin will reduce this type of respiration by assisting glucose to move into cells and to be used for fuel instead of fat. The client who is in ketoacidosis may not experience any respiratory impairment and therefore does not need additional oxygen. Giving the client glucose would be contraindicated. The client does not require seizure precautions.
A nurse cares for a client experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis who presents with Kussmaul respirations. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Administration of oxygen via face mask
b. Intravenous administration of 10% glucose
c. Implementation of seizure precautions
d. Administration of intravenous insulin
Under normal circumstances, blood glucose levels will not be affected by moderate use of alcohol when diabetes is well controlled. Because alcohol can induce hypoglycemia, it should be ingested with or shortly after a meal. One alcoholic beverage is substituted for two fat exchanges when caloric intake is calculated. Kidney function is not impacted by alcohol intake. Alcohol is not associated with increased hunger or overeating.
A nurse cares for a client who has type 1 diabetes mellitus. The client asks, "Is it okay for me to have an occasional glass of wine?" How should the nurse respond?
a. "Drinking any wine or alcohol will increase your insulin requirements."
b. "Because of poor kidney function, people with diabetes should avoid alcohol."
c. "You should not drink alcohol because it will make you hungry and overeat."
d. "One glass of wine is okay with a meal and is counted as two fat exchanges."
Moderate exercise such as walking helps regulate blood glucose levels on a daily basis and results in lowered insulin requirements for clients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Restricting fluids and eating organ meats will not reduce insulin needs. People with diabetes need at least 130 grams of carbohydrates each day.
A nurse teaches a client with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Which statement should the nurse include in this client's teaching to decrease the client's insulin needs?
a. "Limit your fluid intake to 2 liters a day."
b. "Animal organ meat is high in insulin."
c. "Limit your carbohydrate intake to 80 grams a day."
d. "Walk at a moderate pace for 1 mile daily."
An episode of acute rejection does not automatically mean that the client will lose the transplant. Pharmacologic manipulation of host immune responses at this time can limit damage to the organ and allow the graft to be maintained. The other statements either belittle the client or downplay his or her concerns. The client may not be a candidate for additional organ transplantation.
A nurse cares for a client who is diagnosed with acute rejection 2 months after receiving a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant. The client states, "I was doing so well with my new organs, and the thought of having to go back to living on hemodialysis and taking insulin is so depressing." How should the nurse respond?
a. "Following the drug regimen more closely would have prevented this."
b. "One acute rejection episode does not mean that you will lose the new organs."
c. "Dialysis is a viable treatment option for you and may save your life."
d. "Since you are on the national registry, you can receive a second transplantation."
Immunosuppressive agents should not be stopped without the consultation of the transplantation physician, even if an infection is present. Stopping immunosuppressive therapy endangers the transplanted organ. The other statements are correct. Pain over the graft site may indicate rejection. Anti-rejection drugs cause immunosuppression, and the client should avoid crowds and people who are ill. Changing the routine of anti-rejection medications may cause them to not work optimally.
After teaching a client who is recovering from pancreas transplantation, the nurse assesses the client's understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional education?
a. "If I develop an infection, I should stop taking my corticosteroid."
b. "If I have pain over the transplant site, I will call the surgeon immediately."
c. "I should avoid people who are ill or who have an infection."
d. "I should take my cyclosporine exactly the way I was taught."
The stress of surgery increases the action of counterregulatory hormones and suppresses the action of insulin, predisposing the client to ketoacidosis and metabolic acidosis. One manifestation of ketoacidosis is a "fruity" odor to the breath. Documentation should occur after all assessments have been completed. Using an incentive spirometer, increasing IV fluids, and performing pulmonary hygiene will not address this client's problem.
A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus 3 hours after a surgical procedure and notes the client's breath has a "fruity" odor. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Encourage the client to use an incentive spirometer.
b. Increase the client's intravenous fluid flow rate.
c. Consult the provider to test for ketoacidosis.
d. Perform meticulous pulmonary hygiene care.
Clients who have type 1 diabetes and are having surgery have been found to have fewer complications, lower rates of infection, and better wound healing if blood glucose levels are maintained at between 140 and 180 mg/dL throughout the perioperative period. The nurse should document the finding and proceed with other operative care. The need for a bolus of insulin, canceling the procedure, or drawing arterial blood gases is not required.
A preoperative nurse assesses a client who has type 1 diabetes mellitus prior to a surgical procedure. The client's blood glucose level is 160 mg/dL. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Document the finding in the client's chart.
b. Administer a bolus of regular insulin IV.
c. Call the surgeon to cancel the procedure.
d. Draw blood gases to assess the metabolic state.
Clients with diminished sensory perception can easily experience a burn injury when bathwater is too hot. Instead of checking the temperature of the water by feeling it, they should use a thermometer. Examining the feet daily does not prevent injury, although daily foot examinations are important to find problems so they can be addressed. Rotating insulin and checking blood glucose levels will not prevent injury.
A nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus who is experiencing numbness and reduced sensation. Which statement should the nurse include in this client's teaching to prevent injury?
a. "Examine your feet using a mirror every day."
b. "Rotate your insulin injection sites every week."
c. "Check your blood glucose level before each meal."
d. "Use a bath thermometer to test the water temperature."
Damage along nerves causes peripheral neuropathy and leads to burning pain along the nerves. Many drugs, including duloxetine (Cymbalta), can be used to treat peripheral neuropathy. The nurse should assess the client for this condition and then should provide an explanation of why this drug is being used. This medication, although it is used for depression, is not being used for that reason in this case. Duloxetine does not have anti-inflammatory properties. Telling the client that many medications are used for different disorders does not provide the client with enough information to be useful.
A nurse reviews the medication list of a client with a 20-year history of diabetes mellitus. The client holds up the bottle of prescribed duloxetine (Cymbalta) and states, "My cousin has depression and is taking this drug. Do you think I'm depressed?" How should the nurse respond?
a. "Many people with long-term diabetes become depressed after a while."
b. "It's for peripheral neuropathy. Do you have burning pain in your feet or hands?"
c. "This antidepressant also has anti-inflammatory properties for diabetic pain."
d. "No. Many medications can be used for several different disorders."
Renal dysfunction often occurs in the client with diabetes. Proteinuria is a result of renal dysfunction. Specific gravity is elevated with dehydration. Elevated capillary blood glucose levels and ketones in the urine are consistent with diabetes mellitus but are not specific to renal function.
A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus. Which clinical manifestation should alert the nurse to decreased kidney function in this client?
a. Urine specific gravity of 1.033
b. Presence of protein in the urine
c. Elevated capillary blood glucose level
d. Presence of ketone bodies in the urine
Restriction of dietary protein to 0.8 g/kg of body weight per day is recommended for clients with microalbuminuria to delay progression to renal failure. The client's diet does not need to be decreased in carbohydrates, fats, or total calories.
A nurse develops a dietary plan for a client with diabetes mellitus and new-onset microalbuminuria. Which component of the client's diet should the nurse decrease?
d. Total calories
This client is experiencing mild hypoglycemia. For mild hypoglycemic manifestations, the nurse should administer oral glucose in the form of orange juice. If the symptoms do not resolve immediately, the treatment should be repeated. The client does not need intravenous dextrose, insulin, or glucagon.
A nurse assesses a client who has diabetes mellitus and notes the client is awake and alert, but shaky, diaphoretic, and weak. Five minutes after administering a half-cup of orange juice, the client's clinical manifestations have not changed. Which action should the nurse take next?
a. Administer another half-cup of orange juice.
b. Administer a half-ampule of dextrose 50% intravenously.
c. Administer 10 units of regular insulin subcutaneously.
d. Administer 1 mg of glucagon intramuscularly.
Insulin activates the sodium-potassium ATPase pump, increasing the movement of potassium from the extracellular fluid into the intracellular fluid, resulting in hypokalemia. In hyperglycemia, hypokalemia can also result from excessive urine loss of potassium. The chloride level is normal. The calcium and sodium levels are slightly low, but this would not be related to hyperglycemia and insulin administration.
A nurse reviews the laboratory results of a client who is receiving intravenous insulin. Which should alert the nurse to intervene immediately?
a. Serum chloride level of 98 mmol/L
b. Serum calcium level of 8.8 mg/dL
c. Serum sodium level of 132 mmol/L
d. Serum potassium level of 2.5 mmol/L
When ill, the client should monitor his or her blood glucose at least every 4 hours. The client should continue taking the medication regimen while ill. The client should continue to eat and drink as tolerated but should not exercise while sick.
A nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus about sick day management. Which statement should the nurse include in this client's teaching?
a. "When ill, avoid eating or drinking to reduce vomiting and diarrhea."
b. "Monitor your blood glucose levels at least every 4 hours while sick."
c. "If vomiting, do not use insulin or take your oral antidiabetic agent."
d. "Try to continue your prescribed exercise regimen even if you are sick."
A slow but steady improvement in central nervous system functioning is the best indicator of therapy effectiveness for HHS. Lack of improvement in the level of consciousness may indicate inadequate rates of fluid replacement. The Glasgow Coma Scale assesses the client's state of consciousness against criteria of a scale including best eye, verbal, and motor responses. An increase in serum potassium, decreased blood osmolality, and urine negative for ketone bodies do not indicate adequacy of treatment.
A nurse assesses a client who is being treated for hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar state (HHS). Which clinical manifestation indicates to the nurse that the therapy needs to be adjusted?
a. Serum potassium level has increased.
b. Blood osmolarity has decreased.
c. Glasgow Coma Scale score is unchanged.
d. Urine remains negative for ketone bodies.
Neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) is an intermediate-acting insulin with an onset of 1.5 hours, peak of 4 to 12 hours, and duration of action of 22 hours. Checking the client at 0800 would be too soon. Checking the client at 2000 and 2300 would be too late. The nurse should check the client at 1600.
A nurse cares for a client who has diabetes mellitus. The nurse administers 6 units of regular insulin and 10 units of NPH insulin at 0700. At which time should the nurse assess the client for potential problems related to the NPH insulin?
Devote as much teaching time as possible to insulin injection and blood glucose monitoring. Clients with newly diagnosed diabetes are often fearful of giving themselves injections. If the client is worried about giving the injections, it is best to try to find out what specifically is causing the concern, so it can be addressed. Giving the injections for the client does not promote self-care ability. Telling the client that others give themselves injections may cause the client to feel bad. Stating that you don't know another way to manage the disease is dismissive of the client's concerns.
When teaching a client recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the client states, "I will never be able to stick myself with a needle." How should the nurse respond?
a. "I can give your injections to you while you are here in the hospital."
b. "Everyone gets used to giving themselves injections. It really does not hurt."
c. "Your disease will not be managed properly if you refuse to administer the shots."
d. "Tell me what it is about the injections that are concerning you."
The client's tissue has been damaged from continuous use of the same site. The client should be educated to rotate sites. The damaged tissue is not caused by cellulitis or any type infection, and applying ice may cause more damage to the tissue. Insulin can only be administered subcutaneously and intravenously. It would not be appropriate or practical to change the administration route.
A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus who self-administers subcutaneous insulin. The nurse notes a spongy, swelling area at the site the client uses most frequently for insulin injection. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Apply ice to the site to reduce inflammation.
b. Consult the provider for a new administration route.
c. Assess the client for other signs of cellulitis.
d. Instruct the client to rotate sites for insulin injection.
Clients with diabetes need to be seen at least annually to monitor for long-term complications, including visual changes, microalbuminuria, and lipid analysis. The client may develop complications and may need insulin in the future.
After teaching a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the nurse assesses the client's understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching?
a. "I need to have an annual appointment even if my glucose levels are in good control."
b. "Since my diabetes is controlled with diet and exercise, I must be seen only if I am sick."
c. "I can still develop complications even though I do not have to take insulin at this time."
d. "If I have surgery or get very ill, I may have to receive insulin injections for a short time."
Glucophage should not be administered when the kidneys are attempting to excrete IV contrast from the body. This combination would place the client at high risk for kidney failure. The nurse should hold the metformin dose and contact the provider. The other medications are safe to administer after receiving IV contrast.
39.A nurse reviews the medication list of a client recovering from a computed tomography (CT) scan with IV contrast to rule out small bowel obstruction. Which medication should alert the nurse to contact the provider and withhold the prescribed dose?
a. Pioglitazone (Actos)
b. Glimepiride (Amaryl)
c. Glipizide (Glucotrol)
d. Metformin (Glucophage)
The client should not completely eliminate carbohydrates from the diet, and should reduce protein if microalbuminuria is present. The client should increase dietary intake of complex carbohydrates, including vegetables, and decrease intake of fat. Water does not need to be restricted unless kidney failure is present.
After teaching a client who is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the nurse assesses the client's understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching?
a. "I should increase my intake of vegetables with higher amounts of dietary fiber."
b. "My intake of saturated fats should be no more than 10% of my total calorie intake."
c. "I should decrease my intake of protein and eliminate carbohydrates from my diet."
d. "My intake of water is not restricted by my treatment plan or medication regimen."
The client is maintaining blood glucose levels within the defined ranges for goals in an intensified regimen. Because the client's glycemic control is good, he or she is not at higher risk for ketoacidosis or hyperglycemia and is not showing signs of insulin resistance.
A nurse reviews laboratory results for a client with diabetes mellitus who is prescribed an intensified insulin regimen:
• Fasting blood glucose: 75 mg/dL
• Postprandial blood glucose: 200 mg/dL
• Hemoglobin A1c level: 5.5%
How should the nurse interpret these laboratory findings?
a. Increased risk for developing ketoacidosis
b. Good control of blood glucose
c. Increased risk for developing hyperglycemia
d. Signs of insulin resistance
Insulin glargine must not be diluted or mixed with any other insulin or solution. Mixing results in an unpredictable alteration in the onset of action and time to peak action. The correct instruction is to draw up and inject first the glargine and then the regular insulin right afterward.
A nurse prepares to administer insulin to a client at 1800. The client's medication administration record contains the following information:
• Insulin glargine: 12 units daily at 1800
• Regular insulin: 6 units QID at 0600, 1200, 1800, 2400
Based on the client's medication administration record, which action should the nurse take?
a. Draw up and inject the insulin glargine first, and then draw up and inject the regular insulin.
b. Draw up and inject the insulin glargine first, wait 20 minutes, and then draw up and inject the regular insulin.
c. First draw up the dose of regular insulin, then draw up the dose of insulin glargine in the same syringe, mix, and inject the two insulins together.
d. First draw up the dose of insulin glargine, then draw up the dose of regular insulin in the same syringe, mix, and inject the two insulins together.
After washing hands, it is important to inspect the bottles and then to roll the NPH to mix the insulin. Rubber stoppers should be cleaned with alcohol after rolling the NPH and before sticking a needle into either bottle. It is important to inject air into the NPH bottle before placing the needle in a regular insulin bottle to avoid mixing of regular and NPH insulin. The shorter-acting insulin is always drawn up first.
43.A nurse prepares to administer prescribed regular and NPH insulin. Place the nurse's actions in the correct order to administer these medications.
1. Inspect bottles for expiration dates.
2. Gently roll the bottle of NPH between the hands.
3. Wash your hands.
4. Inject air into the regular insulin.
5. Withdraw the NPH insulin.
6. Withdraw the regular insulin.
7. Inject air into the NPH bottle.
8. Clean rubber stoppers with an alcohol swab.
a. 1, 3, 8, 2, 4, 6, 7, 5
b. 3, 1, 2, 8, 7, 4, 6, 5
c. 8, 1, 3, 2, 4, 6, 7, 5
d. 2, 3, 1, 8, 7, 5, 4, 6
The client is acutely ill and is severely dehydrated and hypokalemic. The client requires more IV fluids and potassium. However, potassium should not be infused unless the urine output is at least 30 mL/hr. The nurse should first increase the IV rate and then consult with the provider about the potassium.
A nurse reviews the chart and new prescriptions for a client with diabetic ketoacidosis for .......
*Vital Signs and Assessment,
-Blood pressure: 90/62 mm Hg
-Pulse: 120 beats/min
-Respiratory rate: 28 breaths/min
-Urine output: 20 mL/hr via catheter
-Serum potassium: 2.6 mEq/L
-Potassium chloride 40 mEq IV bolus STAT
-Increase IV fluid to 100 mL/hr
Which action should the nurse take?
a. Administer the potassium and then consult with the provider about the fluid order.
b. Increase the intravenous rate and then consult with the provider about the potassium prescription.
c. Administer the potassium first before increasing the infusion flow rate.
d. Increase the intravenous flow rate before administering the potassium.
The client's symptoms are related to hypoglycemia. Since the client has not been tolerating food, the nurse should administer dextrose intravenously. The client's oxygen level could be checked, but based on the information provided, this is not the priority. The client will not be reoriented until the glucose level rises.
At 4:45 p.m., a nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus who is recovering from an abdominal hysterectomy 2 days ago. The nurse notes that the client is confused and diaphoretic. The nurse reviews the assessment data provided in the chart below:
Capillary Blood Glucose Testing (AC/HS) / Dietary Intake
—At 0630:95 Breakfast: 10% eaten,client states she is not hungry
—At 1130: 70 Lunch: 5% eaten - client is nauseous; vomits once
—At 1630: 47
After reviewing the client's assessment data, which action is appropriate at this time?
a. Assess the client's oxygen saturation level and administer oxygen.
b. Reorient the client and apply a cool washcloth to the client's forehead.
c. Administer dextrose 50% intravenously and reassess the client.
d. Provide a glass of orange juice and encourage the client to eat dinner.
ANS: A, D, E, F
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include certain ethnic/racial groups (African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics), obesity and physical inactivity, and giving birth to large babies. Pancreatic trauma and a 30-pound gestational weight gain are not risk factors.
A nurse assesses clients at a health fair. Which clients should the nurse counsel to be tested for diabetes? (Select all that apply.)
a. 56-year-old African-American male
b. Female with a 30-pound weight gain during pregnancy
c. Male with a history of pancreatic trauma
d. 48-year-old woman with a sedentary lifestyle
e. Male with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2
f. 28-year-old female who gave birth to a baby weighing 9.2 pounds
ANS: A, C, E
DKA leads to dehydration, which is manifested by tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension. Usually clients have Kussmaul respirations, which are fast and deep. Increased urinary output (polyuria) is severe. Because of diuresis and dehydration, peripheral edema and crackles do not occur.
A nurse assesses a client who is experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). For which manifestations should the nurse monitor the client? (Select all that apply.)
a. Deep and fast respirations
b. Decreased urine output
d. Dependent pulmonary crackles
e. Orthostatic hypotension
ANS: A, C
Clients who have diabetes mellitus are at high risk for wounds on the feet secondary to peripheral neuropathy and poor arterial circulation. The client should be instructed to not walk around barefoot or wear sandals with open toes. These actions place the client at higher risk for skin breakdown of the feet. The client should be instructed to trim toenails straight across with a nail clipper. Feet should be washed daily with lukewarm water and soap, but feet should not be soaked in the tub. The client should contact the provider immediately if blisters or sores appear and should not use home remedies to treat these wounds.
A nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus about foot care. Which statements should the nurse include in this client's teaching? (Select all that apply.)
a. "Do not walk around barefoot."
b. "Soak your feet in a tub each evening."
c. "Trim toenails straight across with a nail clipper."
d. "Treat any blisters or sores with Epsom salts."
e. "Wash your feet every other day."
ANS: A, B, C
Complications of diabetes mellitus are caused by macrovascular and microvascular changes. Macrovascular complications include coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Microvascular complications include nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Respiratory failure and cirrhosis are not complications of diabetes mellitus.
A nurse provides diabetic education at a public health fair. Which disorders should the nurse include as complications of diabetes mellitus? (Select all that apply.)
b. Kidney failure
d. Respiratory failure
ANS: A, B, D
When planning care for a client newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, the nurse should collaborate with a registered dietitian, clinical pharmacist, and health care provider. The focus of treatment for a newly diagnosed client would be nutrition, medication therapy, and education. The nurse could also consult with a diabetic educator. There is no need for occupational therapy or speech therapy at this time.
A nurse collaborates with the interdisciplinary team to develop a plan of care for a client who is newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Which team members should the nurse include in this interdisciplinary team meeting? (Select all that apply.)
a. Registered dietitian
b. Clinical pharmacist
c. Occupational therapist
d. Health care provider
e. Speech-language pathologist
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