Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (49)
What term refers to the tendency to use our own culture to judge that of others?
The idea the languages have embedded within them ways of looking at the world is associated with what hypothesis?
a.k.a. Sapir Whorf
How do folkways differ from mores?
Folkways: Custom or belief common to members of a society of a culture -> unimportant everyday behaviors with mild sanctions
Mores: A set of moral norms or customs derived from generally accepted practices
Derived from the established practices of society rather than written law -> dictate appropriate and inappropriate behavior in terms of what is right and wrong
When is a subculture called a counterculture?
When a world within a dominant culture's norms and values clash with the dominant culture
-> A sub culture is when the do NOT clash
What values did Robin Williams identify as core American values?
Achievement and success
Activity and Work
Efficiency and Practicality
Science and Technology
How was the mystery of the Rosetta Stone solved?
Matching greek to hieroglyphics
Jean-Francois Champollion- took 14 years
Hieroglyphics can convey both an idea and a sound
What term refers to a group that rejects the fundamental elements of the dominant culture?
What component of culture is the least obvious?
What did the stories of Genie, Victor and the Romanian orphans show?
The idea of a Feral Child
-> Language and intimate social interactions are essential to the development of what we consider to be human characteristics
In what stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development can children assume the viewpoint of others?
-> child can see others p.o.v. and recognize various aspects of reality at one time
What term refers to Piaget's idea that the shape or appearance of something that has been changed can return to its original form?
key stage of concrete operational
-> conservation of liquid
What concept is illustrated by the reaction of babies to the game of peek-a-boo?
Object Permanence- Sensorimotor Stage
Objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed
What does the development of the generalized other represent?
The ability to recognize the norms, values, attitudes and expectations of people in general
The child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of self
In what state of George Herbert Mead's theory of symbolic interactionism do children take on a number of roles simultaneously?
Game stage- Play stage
How can you apply Charles Horton Cooley's concept of the "looking-glass self" to an individuals self esteem?
If they believe that they are being seen in a positive light, then they will be more inclined to have a positive view of themselves
->self imaged develops out of how others perceive us
With what sociological perspective is Mead's theory of human development associate?
With what is the development of self concurrent, according to George Herbet Mead?
Concurrent with the individual's ability to take on social roles.
Symbolic interactionism: arguing that the self begins to develop once the child's language skills are established, he stressed the importance of symbolic meanings. Built on these key concepts
What is a Feral Child?
A human child who has been isolated from human contact & reputedly raised by animals
-> Victor the wild boy from Aveyron or Genie
How does the looking-glass self related to Mead's concept of me?
Looking glass self- looking at ourselves the way we believe others see us
1) We imagine how we appear to others
2) We imagine how others judge out appearance
3) We experience some kind of emotion
Me- What is learned in the interactions with others and more specifically the environment. Part of the self that reflects other's perceptions of ourselfs
What is the first step of resocialization in a total institution such as prison?
Eroding one's self of social identity
Give three examples to illustrate agents of socialization
The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group - the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate
Source of biological drives
-> One night stand because of the need for instant gratification
Conscious, rational part of the personality
-> Don't take others possessions, instead go and purchase for yourself
-> Cheat on significant other and feel guilty
Give an example of a cultural Taboo
What is nonmaterial Culture
non-physical ideas that people have about their culture, including beliefs, norms, values, rules, morals.
Religion- belief about God, worship, morals
What is cultural diffusion?
The spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another
-> Spread of traits and patterns
Sushi or Soccer
How do people develop shared understandings about what an event means? i.e. college graduation
A ritual through manifestation of culture; rituals create binding attachments among specific groups
give people a sense of who they are and define social groups
Language- talking about things develops a share past via shared perspectives
How do more differ from folkways?
Mores are more strictly enforced and there may be harsh punishment for breaking them
Disapprove of daughter living with boyfriend if they believe only married couples should live together
Describe the differences between Freud's and Mead's early stages of child development
Mead: focuses on the steps of development, very organized
-> Learn through social interactions
Freud: Interested in the subconscious and individuals development
-> Inborn traits
Culture is reflected though symbols, artifacts, and values; guides ones thinking, acting, reacting, and feeling. Rituals
Shared system of beliefs and values
To what does "The Forbidden Experiment" refer?
Departure from normal socialization process
Victor- wild boy
Genie and Roman Orphans
Allowing a human to develop without a family and social interactions
Describe Meads Imitation Stage
-> Child imitates behaviors of others, actions lack meaning and symbolic understanding, self does not emerge until child realizes he is separate from others
Describe Meads Play Stage
Child takes on the role of a particular person, he imagines the world from their unique perspective. he recognizes his own self and may point this out by referring to self in 3rd person. unable to view selves as separate from significant other
Describe Meads Game Stage
Children recognize the need to develop a group perspective, the self incorporates all one's significant others into one generalized other, the self now achieves a unitary stance toward others and no longer darts from role to role. Understand relationship amongst different roles
0-2 years old, sucking, crying, moving different parts of the body, object permanence (peek-a-boo) goal is for child to keep mental picture in mind
2-7 years old, understands concepts and symbols internal conversation and processing infer is more efficient
7-11 years old, begin to understand operations and key concept; conservations
liquid experiment and reversibility
12-15 years old, hypothetical problems, word problems and abstract thinking
Compare and contrast the theories of Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, and Jean Piaget.
Cooley - Looking-glass eye. We imagine how we appear to others, we imagine how others judge our appearance, we experience some kind of emotion.
Mead - Imitation (mimics others without meaning), play [child plays a role of a particular person (i.e. firefighter, doctor) and knows words so they have meaningful reactions], and game (the self plays one role towards a generalized other; child develops group perspective) stages.
Piaget - sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
What term refers to Sumner's idea that people use their own group's way of doing things as a yardstick for measuring others?
What is the difference between knowledge and belief?
Knowledge- known facts science
Belief- What one thinks to be true, no science to support
Explain the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
The linguistic-relativity hypothesis proposes that speakers of a particular language interpret the world through the unique vocabulary and grammar of their own language.
The nature of language affects our perception of the world
Language directs society's attention to certain features
What did Charles Horton Cooley propose about the development of one's self-concept?
Other people serve as a looking-glass which gives us an image of ourselves
Idea's about one's self worth are shaped by the attitudes and reactions of others towards us
We imagine how we appear to others, we imagine how others judge our appearance, we experience some kind of emotion. How we think others perceive us as; more important than reality
What does the "I" represent according to George Herbert Mead?
-> a person's individuality, the capacities to develop self-attitudes and self-feelings
What does the "me" represent according to George Herbert Mead?
-> expectations and attitudes of others, ability to respond to oneself
How did Mead define "significant others"?
Important people who exert a strong influence on children during the development of the self
What is the "generalized other"?
he norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people in general
How did Sigmund Freud explain the development of one's self-concept?
The conscious level (immediate awareness), the preconscious level (memories accessed and
transferred conscious level), and the unconscious level (ideas and motivations beyond one's awareness).
Sets found in the same folder
Sociology 100 Van der Haar
Sociology Exam 3
Sociology S-100 Exam 4
Sets with similar terms
Sociology Exam #4
Sociology Exam 4
Other sets by this creator
Other Quizlet sets
Wills and Trusts: Wills
Last Minute Study - Section 11 - Payroll Accounting
history test 11/9/18