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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
HCPS Unit 2 - The Enlightenment
Terms in this set (18)
a special right given to a person or group of people
a meeting of artists, writers and thinkers in a Paris home during the Enlightenment
to get rid of; to make something illegal
an intellectual movement that stresses reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems
Age of Reason
Another name for the Enlightenment
Wrote in Leviathan (1651) that without government people were naturally nasty, selfish, cruel and brutish. People formed a social contract with a government to give up this horrible life. Hobbes favored an absolute monarchy.
An agreement in which people give up certain rights to create an organized society
Believed people were reasonable beings who could learn from their experiences and had a natural ability to govern themselves and people were born with 3 natural rights - life, liberty and property. If a government fails to protect these rights, people may overthrow their government
social critics who held five central beliefs: Reason gives us truth; Natural is good; Happiness is good; Progress is achievable; and Liberty is important
He fought against intolerance, prejudice and superstition. He fought for freedom of religion and speech. "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it"
Wrote On the Spirit of Laws (1748) which stressed the need for separation of powers (3 branches of Government) in government and a system of checks and balances.
Believed strongly in individual freedom and thought only in a state of nature were people free. "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains" He believed government was guided by the general will of the people and favored a direct democracy. He wrote the Social Contract in 1762. The Contract was between the people and their community. He believed the nobility should be abolished
Believed laws existed to preserve social order and not to avenge crimes. He was against torture and capital punishment. He believed the judicial system needed to be rid of its many abuses.
Wrote a Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) which argued women deserved the same education as men and women should enter into the fields of medicine and politics.
Legacy of the Enlightenment ONE (lasting impact)
Belief in Progress - there developed a belief that human reason could solve social problems.
Legacy of the Enlightenment TWO (lasting impact)
A More Secular Outlook - People began to openly question the teachings of the church and call for an end to superstitions
Legacy of the Enlightenment Three (lasting impact)
Importance of the Individual - People were encouraged to use their own reason to better themselves and society
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