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Halverson's Tech 201 Final
Terms in this set (75)
Islamic dynasty that fostered and focused on creativity
Age of Exploration
The time period when rich European countries were sending out explorers to colonize other parts of the world. Think people like Christopher Columbus. The book wants us to understand that it was an age of discovery and that discovery can be creative for many reasons.
Jerome assembled a group of writings that was officially pronounced as canon by the Bishop of Rome. Jerome's version of the Bible used a Latin translation of the Septuagint, a Greek language version of the Old Testament (which included some of the books commonly known as the Apocrypha.) The Apocrypha was chosen not to be included in Church canon because of certain inconsistencies in the text with the accepted canon that is now the Bible.
The main thorough-fare into Rome; Nero would crucify Christians along the Appian Way, and then set them afire to provide lighting to the road.
Arch and concrete
Key Roman innovations in architecture that allowed the building of structures such as the aqueducts and the coliseum.
decreed that Christ was only a mortal man begotten of God and reduced his role to the lesser status of a demigod—a doctrine that was especially popular among Egyptian Christians and the barbarian Christians of Europe; the Nicene council decreed this belief heretical; practiced by the Goths and Burgundians; Pope Gregory worked extensively to convert them to Catholicism
Battle of Hastings
depicted in Bayeux tapestry; Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and an English army under King Harold II, during the Norman conquest of England; ultimately Normans adopted the tactic of pretending to flee in panic and then turning on their pursuers. Harold's death, probably near the end of the battle, led to the retreat and defeat of most of his English army
A tapestry, created under the command of William, telling the story of the conflict between William and Harold and the Battle of Hastings.
Book of precepts written by St. Benedict for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. The book required those living in a monastery to be obedient to the rule (specifically at Monte Cassino where St. Benedict wrote the book). The requirements outlined in the book transformed monasticism and enabled the church to utilize monasteries for educational and missionary purposes. Organized monasticism that grew from the Benedictine Rule became one of the great creative forces behind the late medieval period.
The sea channel that joins the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. Constantine chose Byzantium (that sits on the peninsula that borders the Bosphorus channel) as the site for the great city Constantinople. Because of its strategic location, the city was much easier to defend than Rome.
Collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in Middle English language style. Premise of the book is a group of pilgrims staying at an inn in London about to embark on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. The innkeeper suggests that each of the pilgrims tell stories along the way to pass the time & promises to give a free dinner to whomever tells the best story. Each pilgrim tells their story and reveals insights, personality and interests of the storyteller. The collection helped to solidify Middle English as the standard language in England.
Because Charlemagne unified much of Europe and stabilized medieval society, wars ceased and banditry was squelched. The constant threat of violence was removed and the people no longer lived in fear. During this period of relative peace, there was a short burst of creativity known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Scholars and monks copied books & built up libraries. Carolingian script was developed - using small (lower case letters) to fit more words on a page & putting spaces between each word allowing for punctuation. Schools built in cathedrals throughout the empire.
Church of Holy Wisdom
"Hagia Sophia" in Greek. Largest church in Christianity at the time of construction. Built during Constantine's reign in constantinople as part of his efforts to create the greatest city that the greatest empire could construct.
Private adventurers who were encouraged but not financially supported by the spanish crown to explore the New World. The men were often from impoverished families looking to make money and gain a reputation. Since the New World was still considered a high risk venture, financing came from wealthy bankers of Barcelona who were willing to take greater risks than the crown of spain in order to gain a percentage of profits. Examples - Hernan Cortes conqueror of the Mexican Aztecs, Franscisco Pizarro conqueror of the Peruvian Incas, Orellana who explored the Amazon River, Francisco Coronado who searched for El Dorado in North America.
Council of Chalcedon
"Conclusion" to the debate on the nature of christ in 451 AD. The debate considered the position of two main groups - the chalcedonians and monophysites. Chalcedonians believed that christ has two separate natures, one human and one divine, each existing simultaneously yet separately within the resurrected Christ. The Monophysites believed that the resurrected Christ had only one nature, as the divine person of Christ took over his human nature so that the human nature no longer existed. Even though the Chalcedonian view was chosen in the council decision, the Monophysites refused to accept the decision and thus the debate continued.
Divine Comedy (book)
The greatest book written by the greatest writer of the Middle Ages (Dante Alighieri). Content summary - Dante's view of Catholic doctrine about the afterlife. Describes hell, purgatory, and paradise.
Divine Right of Kings
The divine right of kings, or divine-right theory of kingship, is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God.
Dome of the Rock
One of the most beautiful Islamic mosques built during the umayyad and early Abbasid Dynasties. Built in Jerusalem on the site where Muhammad ascended to heaven and beheld the glories of Allah's realm. Muhammad was transported to the site and, on his horse named Buraq ("lightning") lifted off a great rock on the top of a mount in Jerusalem.
made by the order of William the Conqueror. from the Anglo-Saxon word for judgment—doom. It was a population census and tax list that also recorded all of the possessions in the country, including animals and machinery. The Doomsday Book has been an invaluable historical reference giving insights into life in the medieval period.
Christian bishop of Caesarea who compiled historical records of the Early Christian church from the second century into a book called The History of the Church.
became the dominant social system in Europe and China about 800 a.d. Started in England when more and more families eventually had a poor crop and could not pay their taxes, more and more land came under the control of the local lords. Eventually nearly all land belonged to the lords, with the peasants being unable or unwilling to leave. Laws were eventually enacted to control and formalize these relationships, including the requirement of the serfs to stay on the land, generation after generation
Islamic scholars developed schools for learning old and new knowledge. They assembled scholars in specific places like Baghdad (Iraq), Cordoba (Spain), and Fez (Morocco). These institutions were precursors to modern universities.
Early leader of the Humanist movement. Wrote poetry and was seen as the successor to the famous writer Dante. Believed that studying the ancient past could reveal truths that would lead people to live better Christian lives. He advocated studies of ancient writings that liberated people from the narrow view of the medieval age. Was a strong advocate of liberating education and creative thinking - "The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled."
Angel who visited Muhammad and commanded him 3 different times to read from a scroll. Muhammad protested that he was illiterate and could not comply. The angel then told Muhammad that God could teach him things that could not be read; then Gabriel began to teach him. The messages that Gabriel gave Muhammad would later become the Qur'an - islam's holy book.
"who lived from 130 a.d. to 220 a.d., built upon the concepts of Hippocrates and further defined the methods of modern medicine, including the use of observations and notes to assist in diagnosis. He advocated that physicians have knowledge of the body and the purpose of the organs which he personally obtained as the physician to the gladiators. (He was able to observe the inner workings of the body as he tried to treat the many deep and extensive wounds of the gladiators.) He identified most of the muscles of the body and described how they worked in groups. He discussed the importance of the spinal cord, and demonstrated how severing the cord in different places resulted in paralysis to different parts of the body. He also explained the linkage between physical and mental health.
Galen conveyed this information in 22 volumes that served as standard medical textbooks into the modern era. He also classified diseases and the normal treatments that were effective. He sought to determine the causes of diseases—a unique concept in those days. Like Hippocrates, the ancient Greek, he believed that the four bodily fluids or humors—blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm—combined together to form tissues, and that those tissues combined to form the organs. If a person was ill, Galen believed that it was a result of imbalance in the humors.
Galen was recognized in his own day as Rome's leading physician. Besides his work on the gladiators, he was appointed to be personal physician to several of the emperors and other leading Roman citizens. He was truly a creative individual who exhibited well the Roman desire to make knowledge useful
aka Temujin. founder of Mongol empire. poor childhood, watched father die. found military success. conquered most of central asia and china using raids and massacres. Mongols eventually established the largest contiguous land kingdom in history.
Also had a lot of babies: "An international group of geneticists studying Y-chromosome data
have found that nearly 8 percent of the men living in the region of the former Mongol empire carry
y-chromosomes that are nearly identical. That translates to 0.5 percent of the male population in the world, or roughly 16 million descendants living today." #prolificlover
Most famous writer to use Middle English instead of old english. Most famous work: "Canterbury Tales" which helped solidify Middle English.
Began with the reconstruction of the abbey church of St-Denis. Forces on a semicircular arch (A) compared with a pointed arch (B); and the dome vault (C) created when semicircular arches intersect, compared with the ribbed vault (D) when pointed arches intersect. Flying buttresses are depicted in (E).
Great Chain of Being
All humans in the European society were linked together in the Great Chain of Being. Everyone was linked by a social network, and God was at the top of the chain. he was linked to earth in two lines. the first was his representatives on earth (pope, bishops, etc), the other line was to the king who was then linked to the dukes, barons, etc. the kingly line continues all the way down to the villages and common people.
the western schism and papal schism was split when several men claimed to be the true pope. the western schism is sometimes called the great schism.
Ruled from 590-604. In many ways, Gregory shaped the medieval Catholic Church. Had a debate with Eutychius over the doctrine of resurrection which went to court. Eutychius stated that resurrected bodies of the righteous would be "impalpable, more light than air." Gregory stated that Christ's resurrected body had been palpable and not lighter than air, as evidenced in his appearance to the apostles on at least two occasions following his resurrection. Judge ruled in Gregory's favor.
Guido d Arezzo
Previously the sequence of musical notes was merely indicated by a rising or lowering of marks on a page. Guido d'Arezzo, a Benedictine monk, used a four-line staff as a reference for the pitches. He soon realized that voices would cover a wider range than could be easily indicated with just a single staff, and so he also invented the use of treble and bass clefs and assigned a name to each of the notes, from a to g. He also began the practice of naming the sounds of a scale (do, re, mi, etc.)
Greatest of the Spanish conquistadors (private adventurers). Conquered Mexico and the native Aztecs.
High Middle Ages
Term used to describe the time period from about 1200 A.D to the renaissance. Used the term "High" Middle Ages to refer to the high levels of creativity.
Islam is largely based on the teachings of the Holy Qur'an, (sometimes written as Koran) which were conveyed to mankind through a man named Muhammad, who Muslims believe was the great, last prophet.
Hundred Years War
War between England and France, over the ownership of lands (which England claimed in France) and the right to the French throne
Islam means "submissive or peace"; Wikipedia link on p. 299 = it's a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and that the purpose of existence is to worship God.
Began a compilation and sorting of the existing manuscripts and letters that might be considered authentic works of scriptures. Also known for translating the bible into Latin.
Ka'ba or Ka'aba
It's a cuboid building at the centre of Islam's most sacred mosque, Al-Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred point within this most sacred mosque, making it the most sacred location in Islam.
The general thrust of the councils was to separate the church from secular influences, such as elimination of the involvement of kings and emperors in the election of the pope and the naming of bishops. The edicts from the councils also reaffirmed the celibacy of the clergy, specifically prohibiting clerics from marrying, having concubines, or even living in the same house with a woman.
King selects bishops of the church to ensure some control over the church (keeps Pope from having all power and total control over the church).
innovation in weaponry in the middle ages. 8 foot long bow with lethal range and penetration power. Could not be fired from horseback. Heavily used by the English during the Hundred Years War (think Age of Empires 2, Britton Longbowman)
Between the Fall of the West and Justinian. The wall was built by order of Anastasius to increase fortifications of Constantinople and was over 40 miles long.
limiting the powers of the king; Three significant changes in the MAgna Carta: 1) The church's independence from secular law (article 1); 2) Right to a fair trial for the accused before any punishment (article 39); 3) The election of Parliament to ensure these rights for all (article 61).
Maimonides was not known as a supporter of mysticism, although a strong intellectual type of mysticism has been discerned in his philosophy. He expressed disapproval of poetry, the best of which he declared to be false, since it was founded on pure invention. Maimonides' Mishnah Torah is considered by traditionalist Jews even today as one of the chief authoritative codifications of Jewish law and ethics.
A major invention that originated in Europe which dated from about 1400. The first major advancement in timekeeping since the water clock of ancient times. These new mechanical clocks utilized gravity to pull weights, which activated the catch-and-release mechanisms that were the technological innovation that allowed clocks to be invented.
A banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained citizens rather than monarch
Music with one melody line sung in unison. Monophony preserved the clarity of the words and encouraged contemplation, as would have been consistent with the purposes of monastic life. There was no beat or regular rhythm to disrupt the reverent sound or stir the passions.
believed that the resurrected Christ had only one nature, as the divine person of Christ took over his human nature so that the human nature no longer existed.
is a city and system of valleys on the southern coast of Peru. Location of interesting markings on the land that depict religious or cultural events or symbols that can be only be fully seen from the sky.
The largest accomplishment was reaching an agreement on the nature of the Trinity and a declaration that the Arian belief was heretical. The Nicene Creed declared that God the Son was begotten of the Father's substance, that God is one object in Himself and three objects to Himself, and that the Trinity is the fundamental miracle of the world. l. The Nicene Council also helped resolve the relationship between the Church and the state, because the various bishops in attendance all agreed to recognize Constantine (the emperor) as Christ's surrogate.
The Olmecs were the first great civilization of the Americas and were based in fertile river valleys of southeastern Mexico, beginning about 2200 b.C. Little is known of the Olmec civilization except for the massive stone heads that they left. Olmec society seemed to have collapsed about 400 B.C.
These domes, which are a blend of Byzantine, Persian, and Slavic influences, are beautiful reminders of the once great Byzantine Empire and its lasting influence on the eastern Mediterranean and beyond.
or Origen Adamantius was a scholar and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria. Some of his reputed teachings, such as the pre-existence of souls, the final reconciliation of all creatures and the subordination of the Son of God to God the Father
In 1453 the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and eventually renamed it Istanbul, bringing an end to the eastern empire. (p. 305) The Ottoman Turks viewed themselves as the successors to the Abbasids, and acted as the rulers of all Islam. The Ottoman Turks continued to control vast territories in Africa, the Middle East, and southern Europe until the end of World War I.
The best preserved ancient Roman structure in Rome. An engineering marvel that combines the concepts of the arch, taken to their logical conclusion—the dome—with the other great engineering technology developed by the Romans—concrete ---- was commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD
declarations of truth - a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church
Pillars of Islam
Five fundamental beliefs and practices that all muslims accept: 1) Shahadah: Believe in only one God, Allah, and Muhammad as his last and greatest prophet; 2) Salat: Pray five times daily; 3) Zakat: Give alms to the needy; 4) Sawm: Fast during the month of Ramadan. 5) Hajj: Visit Mecca on a pilgrimage
Pliny the Elder
wrote a book, Natural History, in which he tried to collect the entire knowledge of humankind about the natural world. His subjects include cosmology, astronomy, geography, anthropology, zoology, botany, and mineralogy. While much of it is both interesting and accurate, some of the information has proven to be in error, probably because Pliny gathered his information from a variety of unproven sources. Some of the tall tales we have today came from his book, such as the story of ostriches poking their heads in the sand, and of elephants being afraid of mice. Pliny was incredibly curious about the world and, in the end, died from his curiosity when he got too close to the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 a.d.
Pope Urban II
To maintain Christian access to the Holy Land, Pope Urban II decided to call for a holy crusade to free the Holy Land from Muslim control. Instituted indulgences (pay money to be forgiven of sins) to fund the holy crusade.
perhaps the most important Greek scientist . Stated that solar system revolved around the Earth. Planets move along a general circular path, called the deferent, and along that path also followed a series of mini circles called epicycles. He devised many rules of reflection and refraction.
Post-Constantine Period. Seaport city and government headquarters of the emperors of this time period; place of artistic and cultural revival after the fall of Italy. Home of the Basilica of San Vitale
"rebirth"; Cultural movement that began in Italy; Believed to be the "bridge" between the middle ages and modern history. Changes in art: linear perspective and natural, or real, painting; Politics: emphasis on diplomacy; Science: reliance on observation; Humanism and the new ideals on individuality also came to be.
Roland (Song of Roland)
Nephew to Charlamagne; Helped to drive Franks out of Spain and to establish Christianity there.
AKA "Augustine of Hippo"; wrote Confessions: "I would know myself that I might know thee." and The City of God: gives a history of and the plans for the world as directed by God; Augustine stated that though a king is subject to law, he has a mandate from God, or divine right, to rule.
Aryan language; Language of the Indian epics Mahabharta, which is a collection of epics, and the Ramayana.
monk of Florence; he opposed paintings of non-religious themes. He took control of the city and burned as much pagan art as he could.
Mughal ruler; built the Taj Mahal, which is a tomb for his wife.
refers to the second largest denomination of Islam. Also, Islam has two main branches: the Shia and the Sunni. This split in the religion comes down to a political and spiritual difference of opinion about who should have succeeded Muhammad after his death. Major tenets and beliefs are often similar between the two branches, but some important differences exist. Tensions and conflicts between Shias and Sunnis are very similar to those that have at times existed between Catholics and Protestants.
ancient belief in gods of nature and ancestral worship; later it was blended with Buddhism; dominates Japanese culture.
Located just outside of Paris. Birthplace of Gothic architecture which began with the reconstruction of the abbey church
Father had him arrested for becoming a Dominican monk. While he was in jail he memorized the Bible. He stated "I would rather believe that there was a flying cow than to believe that my friends would lie to me." Mentor was Albert Magnus who believed that there are two sources of knowledge: knowledge that comes from science and knowledge that comes from God. Aquinas wrote Summa Theologica which describes a middle path between these two sources, finding a balance between relying on God and relying on man.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement between the Portuguese, Spanish, and the Pope to move the line of demarcation.
Trial by ordeal
the person accused is dunked in pure water. If they floated they were guilty. If they sank, they were innocent (but might not be alive).
"to sing poetry"; Instruments: string i.e lyres and lutes; typically sang love songs.
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