Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
EXAM 5- Anatomy and Physiology 2
Terms in this set (65)
The movement of colonic contents from one puckered section to another
By emulsifying and breaking up triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids components,
bile salts contribute to digestion
A hepatic triad consists of
a bile ductule, a branch of artery and a branch of the hepatic portal vein
Cephalic, gastric, and intestinal
are the 3 phases of gastric secretion
The oral phase of swallowing is under __________ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is __________.
The outer most layer of the digestive tract, which is composed variations of 4 layers from the lower esophagus to the rectum is called the
Male infertility refers to the
inability to fertilize an egg
Located in the head of the sperm, the acrosome contains
enzymes used to penetrate barriers surrounding the ovum
In the process of spermiogenesis, spermatids beecome
spermatozoa, or mature sperm
each diploid(2n) parent cell produces four haploids(n) cells carrying only a single copy of human chromosomes
Testosterone hormones directly stimulate
the development of male secondary sex characteristics
Men have only one __________.
Sperm cells reach maturity in the
epididymis in the testis
The blood-testis barrier(BTB) prevents
Sperm cells reach maturity in the
epididymis in the testis
The deep region of the penis, surrounding the urethra, that engorges with blood during an erection is known as the
Whether an organism will be genetically male or female is determined by __________.
the Y chromosome in sperm
The testis is the _____ and the sperm is the ______.
The basal metabolic rate (BMR)
is different from the total metabolic rate (TMR), since the TMR includes the BMR.
What are the major classes of nutrients?
but not Nucleic Acids
Extreme electrolyte loss via sweat
Which of the following results in heat exhaustion?
The basal metabolic rate is measured when
a person first rises in the morning
What will raise the total metabolic rate?
Eating and big meal
fever or pregnancy
but not starvation
The functions of the liver include
converting ammonia to urea, carrying out most beta oxidation, synthesizes cholesterol and synthesizes glucose from fats and amino acids
While is does not produce digestive enzymes, the liver synthesizes
plasma proteins, produces glucagon from excess glucose, detoxifies poisonous wastes, and phagocytizes pathogens
Fatty acids are catabolized through the process of
Beta oxidation that provides fuel for cellular respiration
The inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein ATP synthase, which harnesses the energy created by h+ flow to produce ATP by a process called
Glycolysis and anaerobic respiration collectively produce up to ____ ATP per glucose while glycolysis and anaerobic fermentation collectively produces____
Glycolysis happens in the____ whereas Citric Acid cycle (CAC) happens in the ____.
Glycolysis is the first step in cellular respiration of glucose energy, precedes and thus makes possible all of other processes including
Citric Acid Cycle, Lactate reduction, Electron transport Train, and Anaerobic fermentation
C6H12O6+6O2---> 6CO2+6H2O represents
the overall reaction for aerobic respiration
Minerals are _______elements whereas vitamins are ______compounds.
Vitamin A deficiency is the most common worldwide vitamin
Muscle contractions, Transport of blood lipids, maintaining blood viscosity and osmolarity catalyzing enzymatic reactions are functions of
Lipoproteins, including HDL (High Density Lipoproteins), that transport hydrophobic lipids in blood are produced in the
is the healthiest ratio of lipoproteins for transport of triglycerides
High HDL: low LDL
Functions of the lipids include
form the plasma membrane structure, from the myelin around the nerve fibers, form the structure of some hormones, providing cushioning around soft organs
Defecation is stimulated by
stretching of the rectum
Bacteria constitute about __________% of the dry weight of the feces.
large intestine is not involved in
In the large intestine, the muscle tone of the taeniae coli along the colon contracts its length wise causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called_____________
During digestion, the small intestine is the major site of
_________________________are the three most abundant classes of nutrients in our diets
Fats, proteins, Carbohydrates
__________________must be digested and catabolized by enzymes in order to be absorbed by the intestines
The enzymes called peptidases or proteases break down the nutrient substrates called
proteins in amino acids
are the nutrients that are absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine for entry into the lymphatic system
Circular folds (plicae circulares), intestinal length, microvilli, & villi are associated with increasing the large absorptive surface of the
Bile from the liver and digestive juices from the pancreas enter the duodenum section of the small intestine through the
The gastric phase is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vasovagal reflexes, which turn
stimulate gastric secretions
activate pepsinogen into pepsin, activate lingual lipase, destroy ingested pathogens, & covert fe3+ to fe2+ for hemoglobin
In the stomach, gastric hydrochloric acid (HCL) functions include
Necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption, __________ is/are secreted by __________ cells.
Functions of the stomach include
chemical and mechanical digestion of proteins and carbohydrates
Amylase and lipase, but not protein digesting protease are normally found in
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with _________, whereas protein digestion begins in the ________.
Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by __________.
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
is covered with nonkeratinized, stratified squamous epithelium, and has bumps called lingual papilla, where many taste buds can be found
the surface of the tongue
The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents
antibodies in the blood from getting to the germ cells
When it is cold, the __________ contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm and protect sperm viability
The layer of the digestive system that is responsible for the motility that propels food and residue through the digestive tract is called
An example of chemical digestion is the breakdown of nucleic acids, like DNA&RNA, into nucleotides by enzymes called
Aerobic respiration is more efficient than aerobic fermentation
since the latter is oxygen dependent ATP production
Glucose in excess of the body's immediate needs is usually converted to
glycogen in the liver
Consumption of excess calories during adulthood causes adipocytes to
enlarge rather than multiply
Testosterone stimulates development for the
secondary sex characteristics, spermatogenesis, and libido
Sets with similar terms
nutrition and digestion
digestive tract part 2
Lecture exam 3 Physiology
Unit 5 A & P
Other sets by this creator
Human Anatomy Physiology 2 Exam 4
Psychology Chapter 8