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Biology Final (Semester 1)

Terms in this set (37)

Glycolysis: (look above)
Transition Reaction
Occurs between cytoplasm and mitochondrial matrix
Pyruvate combines with coenzyme (CoA) to produce Acetyl CoA
At end of process, energy is in NADH and CoA
Kreb's Cycle
Acetyl CoA combines with a 4C molecule
Main output: NADH (prepares for Electron Transport Chain)
Electron Transport Chain
Electron Carriers (NADH and FADH2) are temporarily storing energy
Electron transport proteins
H+ pumps: membrane protein to pump a proton against concentration gradient
ATP synthase: protein that uses energy released by movement of protons down concentration gradient to make ATP
Process is known as chemiosmosis
Oxygen: an "input" and final acceptor of the process
Photosynthesis
Takes place in chloroplast
Thylakoid: flattened (contains chlorophyll)
Grana: stacks of thylakoids
Stroma: fluid filled region
Two forms of energy makings
Light dependent reaction (occurs in thylakoid membrane)
takes place in thylakoid membrane
Sunlight excites e- in the chlorophyll of Photosystem II and is "caught" by e-acceptor
e- transferred along an electron transport chain
Sunlight excites e- in photosystem I and again is caught by e-acceptor
e- are transferred along the Electron Transport Chain and will eventually combine with NADP to make NADPH
Restoring photosystem II
Enzyme in thylakoid splits water into protons, electrons, and oxygen
Synthesis of ATP:
chemiosmosis: build up of a H+ concentration gradient (high in thylakoid space)
ATP synthase: located in thylakoid membrane, makes ATP as H+
Light Independent Reaction (Calvin Cycle)
Occurs in stroma
CO2 enters and combines with molecule
ATP & NADPH provide energy and H+ to form molecule
After long process, the molecule gives off glucose