Chapter 5 of APUSH

1 / 157
Who won the election of 1800
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (157)
When he gives the inaugural address he fills it with democratic ideals and said he would respect majority rule and defend minority rights. He also says "We are all republicans, we are all federalists." He's saying we were all Americans. He wanted unity. He talks about not getting into any entangling alliances.
He did not use the spoil system. What it is is where you replace workers with people in your own party. He dismissed very few employees. He was an idealist. It's what you want the world to look like. He was an enlightenment author. He sees the possibilities. He had to become a realist as president. He is consistently inconsistent. He doesn't do what he says.Jefferson as president...Jefferson did was pardon the people arrested by the Alien and Sedition Acts and gives back fines. He also gets congress to pass the Naturalization Act of 1802, which reverses the Alien and Sedition acts. It returns to 5 years for citizenship.One of the first things Jefferson does in office...Who was Jefferson's secretary of treasury?Albert GallatinHe wanted to keep most of Hamilton's program. They want to cut down the national debt quicker, while balancing the budget. Slash government spending. They also get rid of the Whiskey excise tax. However, the whiskey tax took in 1 mil a year.Gallatin as secretary of treasuryJefferson absorbs most of the federalist programs, proving restraint. Just because you lose doesn't mean your party is destroyed. He was trying to say we can work together to balance the countryJefferson paved the way for a current two party political systemJudicial branch- before Jefferson was weak. They had the least power of all. However John Adams knew the country would change and realized since federalists lost the legislative and executive, he could maybe try the judicial branch. Judges didn't run, they were appointed. John Adams wanted to appoint as many federalists to the courts before he left the presidency. Since they were lifetime turns, he thought if he got all the federalists, the federalists might not be removed. Trying to pack the courts with federalists. The ***** act of 1*** makes this possible. Last major acts (important) passed by federalists. It creates 6 new circuit (regional) courts. 16 new federal judgeship positions, and several other minor judicial and judge positions. It also reduced the supreme court from 6 to 5 justices.The judiciary act of 1801It creates 6 new circuit (regional) courts. 16 new federal judgeship positions, and several other minor judicial and judge positions. It also reduced the supreme court from 6 to 5 justices.What the Judiciary Act of 1801 didthe time period of election to inauguration for an outgoing presidentlame duck periodThe federalists he appointed were the ***** . Adams did it at the end of his term, hence the name.Midnight JusticesWho hated the judiciary act. They said it was undemocratic. The people wanted democratic.Jefferson and the republicansthe most influential chief justice. He was the first powerful chief justice. Tons of precedence in legal matters from him. he was John Adams 4th choice. He was the secretary of state for Adams and a lifelong federalist. He served at valley forge. He looked and saw the lack of everything in valley forge and became a federalist. He was a federalist judge under a federalist president for 30 daysJohn MarshallWhere a president can put people in the judiciary branch because they serve lifelong terms, and said judges serve for a long time (EX: John Marshall appointed under Adams)Power of entrenchmentWilliam Marbury was one of the midnight judges. He was named the justice of the peace (5 year term)for DC by Adams. Adams signed his commission and signed (affixed) it with the presidential seal making it a legal document. He left it on his desk for Jefferson. Jefferson reads it and didn't want Marbury to control the courts, and told Madison to not deliver the commission (secretary of state was supposed to deliver commissions under the current law) Marbury was waiting for his paperwork. He was wondering where it was since it was law. Marbury sues them in court. Marbury sues Madison. 4 key things. 1. Is Marbury entitled to his commission. The court says yes. Adams signed it and affixed the seal, so it was his. It was never delivered. 2. Did Madison act wrongfully by not delivering the commission. The court says Yes. He was supposed to deliver it, by not he violated the law. 3. Since he didn't deliver it, it is a writ of mandamus a remedy to the conflict (a court order) a Judge could sign it and the answer was Yes (Marshall could sign it forcing Madison to deliver it) 4. Can a writ of mandamus be issued to Madison? No. It would have weakened the supreme court. So he had to outsmart Madison. The writ was in section 13 of the judiciary act of 1789. Gives the power of mandamus. In a federal act. The law was unconstitutional and judges did not have the power to issue them, and he was denied the commission. John Marshall established the principle of judicial review. The first time the judicial branch had ruled it as unconstitutional. Congress created an illegal act in their law. Marbury loses the case. Marshall was the real winner. He allowed courts to rule a law of congress unconstitutional. He established the principle of review. And even have some power over the executive and legislative. They can deem it unconstitutional.Marbury v MadisonWho established Judicial reviewJohn MarshallThe Supreme Court's authority to decide if a law violates the ConstitutionWhat is judicial review?In 1804, TJ decided he wanted to reshape the supreme court by impeaching one of his justices. He hated the judge because they persecuted people (Samuel Chase) during the Alien and Sedition Act. He wants revenge. If they break the law (a serious enough crime) they can impeach them. Congress does not impeach Samuel Chase. It establishes an independent judiciary from politicsIncreases the judiciary powerhe has to deal with the military. He thinks it is too big. (Adams propped it up because he thought there was going to be war) TJ cuts it down and it's basically a police force now. He limits the military because he's an idealist. He thinks it will cut down the militaries of other countries and then it would be more peaceful. He also thinks standing armies are a threat to people's liberties. He thinks it's a gateway to dictatorships in democracy. He also was trying to balance the budget. His problem is in the Mediterranean seas. The barbary pirates. They were used by 4 north African nations. The barbary pirates were the mafia of the Mediterranean. Almost all major countries in the world were paying them off, even GB. The US had started paying them under Adams, but Jefferson wanted to balance the budget and stopped paying them. The north African states (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripelly)TJ foreign policyPasha of Tripoli (king) were irate because the US stopped paying them. He started the *****. Undeclared war. They sanctioned the pirates to attack them. TJ had to create the Mosquito fleet (small quick ships) and he liked little warships. He sent them over to fight in the Mediterranean. In most of the battles the US loses. Even though we sent in the Navy and the marines. The Navy was led by Admiral Decatur. Almost like the Quasi-War. We lost. We had to give in and pay 60,000 to the pirates. One of our ships USS Philadelphia ran aground so it couldn't be used by the pirates. We also had to pay them tribute until 1815.Tripolitan War (1801-1805)This serves as a training ground for the navy. In how to fight on the high seas, which was valuable in the war of 1812. A lot of sailors gain valuable experience. We also gained international respect for trying to take them on.Positives out of the Tripolitan WarTJ wanted America to be stronger. The best way to do that in that time was to get as much as humanly possible. He wanted to get the lands in the west. It would help the American dream (begins with purchasing property) He wants more Americans to have more property. 1800. Jefferson won the election, etc. Spain still ruled Louisiana. That changed because Napoleon wanted to conquer the world. It would be the right step to getting the whole world. Napoleon makes a secret deal with Carlos IV (4) of Spain. They make a deal for Louisiana. Napoleon gets Louisiana and Carlos' son gets a part of Italy Napoleon took over. Carlos couldn't take on Napoleon so he let him have it. Spain was having other issues with their colonies. Napoleon secretly takes over Louisiana. In 1802 the US became suspicious. "Spain" withdrew our right of deposit. Pickney's treaty let us deposit so we were like wtf. That's when Jefferson realized it wasn't Spain it was France. We were like "Oh god" and Jefferson freaks out. If we can't trade in New Orleans it would collapse the western economy. Jefferson couldn't afford to have a war with Napoleon. TJ decided to try and work out a treaty. Jefferson called in James Monroe. He wanted him to go to France to work out a deal to purchase New Orleans and any part of West Florida. Offer up to 10 mil. Our ambassador in France (Robert Livingston) regular minister was called to a meeting with Talleyrand. Talleyrand said Napoleon had an offer for the Americans. Napoleon wanted to sell them all of the Louisiana territory. Livingston needed authorization, but Napoleon wanted to get it movingLouisiana PurchaseThe first reason, Napoleon was having a slave uprising in the sugar islands of the west islands, especially in Santo Domingo. Known as the Haitian Revolution. The leader was a French general named Toussaint L'Ouverture. It became very costly to fight the slaves and he was losing a lot of his sailors to Yellow Fever and Malaria. It was too out of control. He also needed the spice islands to be connected to LA. He (reason 2) was getting ready for war with GB. He needed money, quickly. And, he would rather the US get the land then GB.Why Napoleon wanted to sell LAHow much did we pay for the Louisiana Purchase? (3-4 cents per acre, 828,000 square feet)15 million dollars13 future states. Now have complete control of Mississippi and New Orleans. International respect. Doubles US overnight. World power. The French threat is completely gone. Truly the beginning of manifest destiny. However it would lead to fighting with natives and Mexico and future slavery.Consequences of LA purchaseTJ Private SecreataryMerriweather LewisLewis was Tj's Private secretary and had military experience. Clark was an army officer and the brother of George Rodgers ClarkWho were Lewis and Clark?They were joined by 45 other adventurers, the corpse of discovery. Army officers, guides, interpreters, etc. They started with boats, they walked, and used horses. Only one person died in the entire adventure, from natural causes. They also had very strict discipline. If you were out of line you would get whipped. They leave from St. Louis. Gateway to the west. May 14th, 1804. They ascend the Missouri River and along the way they come across Sacagawea. (or with a j) A Shoshone Native. She helps them, guides them, and is an interpreter. She was joined with her husband, French fur trader, Toussaint Charbonneau. He won her because her father gambled her away at 13. She gives birth along the way. Jean Baptist. They eventually hit the Rockies, and the Colombia, and from there the Pacific. On the way they split into two parties, but they met again and after 2.5 they came back on September 23, 1806. After travelling 8000 miles they reach St. Louis. They made scientific discoveries, new flora and fauna, animals, and they brought two bear cubs for Jefferson. They also drew maps, and future trails. They kept diaries. They also make positive relations with NativesLewis and Clark ExpeditionDates of LAC expeditionMay 14, 1804-September 23, 1806However, ****** was kind of overshadowed. He went to the southern portions of LA, he took off from St. Louis. Pike goes across the Great Plains and heads south through Spanish territory, and Texas. Pikes Peak was named after him. His travels were based on the Santa Fe trailsZebulon Pikeit makes the U.S. more powerful, and more power to the federal government. Congress controls territories. (Before they become states) It leads to a lot of intrigue, from Aaron Burr. Burr conspiracies. Aaron Burr was the VP of the U.S. and TJ doesn't like him. Burr was a lame duck VP. He was never asked in the Jefferson party. He has no power, and he was a Hamiltonian lust for power. He knew Jefferson would drop him in 1804. Now that Western U.S. was growing, that only really benefited Republicans. Federalists were freaking out. It would kill the party. Republicans dominated now. Federalists fear their power was dying.Effects of LAPA small group of extreme federalists, Essex Junto. They wanted a Northern confederacy. They wanted to secede from the U.S. They wanted NE and NY to secede from the U.S. The problem was they didn't have enough power to do it. They wanted Burr. They approach him and they tell him to run for governor for New York, and when he won he could let New York secede. They said they would even let him be president. Burr while VP ran to become governor of NY. Burr was running for governor of NY, but Hamilton blasts Burr in the newspaper. Attacked everything. They link him to 20 different prostitutes. Burr was irate. He wanted to duel Hamilton. Hamilton doesn't back down, so Burr challenges him to duel. Hamilton agrees (he didn't like them because his son was killed in one) Dueling is illegal but accepted. On July 11th, 1804 they went to Weehawken, NJ. Early morning. They take their paces, take aim, and fire. Hamilton thought it was going to be a bloodless duel. They would miss on purpose. Burr didn't get the memo. Burr shoots Hamilton, he's in pain for 36 hours. Slowly bleeding to death. Now, the VP of the US killed the former secretary of the treasury. He was charged with murder, but the NY courts don't put him on trial because juries will never convict based on duels. Burr was the only VP charged with murder in US history. Burr got away with murder and finished his term. The Federalist party takes a severe blow from losing Hamilton. Burr's political career was dead. The Essex Junto falls apart. Burr really has no power. A couple years later Burr creates a plot to take over Louisiana, so he makes a deal with General James Wilksin. He was the military governor of LA. They wanted Mexico too. A Trans Mississippi empire. He gets 60 guys to go down the Mississippi, but Wilkinson reports it to Jefferson. Burr was now arrested. He was brought back to Richmond, and put on trial for treason.Burr's life and more LAP effectsThe federal judge appointed to Burr's trial was John Marshall. Marshall said not guilty. Treason acquires overt actions against the United States. Since he didn't do anything yet, they couldn't get him. The letters between Wilkinson and him were lost, so they had no evidence. Marshall said they couldn't convict him because they had no evidence. Burr gets off again. He heads to Europe, and he's still not done. He tries to convince Napoleon to ally with GB and attack the US and make a new empire and let him be king. This all stemmed from the Louisiana Purchase. Governing the new territory would not be easy. It's a nightmare to expand. Burr goes back to the US and has kids, and dies in 1836.John MarshallJefferson dropped Burr and replaced him with governor Clinton, running with a formal and separate ballot (12 amendment) this election was a landslide. Federalists run Pickney but he only wins two states. Jefferson wins 162-14. Shows how weak the federalist party was, and he won because of the Louisiana purchase.Election of 1804President and VP run on separate ballots12th amendmentthe Napoleonic wars were heating up. Napoleon was taking over Europe as quickly as possible. They called him the Tiger. They controlled continental Europe. Britain was the shark since they controlled the seas. The US wanted to remain neutral. When you are neutral you can trade as long as you don't have weapons. The problem was neither France and Britain wanted us to trade with the other.Problems in 1805The tigerNapoleonSharkBritainThis act makes all trade with Great Britain is illegalBerlin Decree, 1806Response to Berlin Decree: What that does GB will blockade continental Europe, making it illegal to trade with France unless you go to England first, you have to pay a tax and license to trade in Europe.Orders in CouncilWhat did Napoleon write his acts afterThe current city he occupiedHe says any ship that follows British orders from the French navy will be subject to seizure. Rock and a hard place for Jefferson, caught in the middle of two countries violating our neutrality.Milan Decree, 18076,000 were impressed, more by the British than the French, and many died serving in the navyProblems with GB and France (GB impressing more than France)USSUnited States Ship (war vessel)HMSHis/Her Majesty's Ship (warship)We had a warship, USS "Chesapeake" (USS means War vessel) off Norfolk VA. It gets stopped by the British warship HMS "Leopard" A larger, more powerful ship. (His/her Majesty's ship, British warship) The captain of the Leopard tells the Us captain they had 4 British deserters. Technically, you could impress off merchant ships, but since the British were illegally seizing, and international law says you cannot impress warships. The American captain said no, and the British started opening fire. It killed 3 American sailors, wounded 18, and then the British went in and took 4 "deserters" (who weren't) Americans who wanted war. The London Foreign Offices apologize. Ooh big deal, Americans are infuriated. Jefferson knows we can't break our neutrality, we are still too weak. He looks for alternatives for war.Chesapeake Affair (1807)The **** act was in response to the Chesapeake Affair. **** act cuts off ALL trade in and out of the US. Cuts out all foreign trade. No imports and exports. Jefferson thought this would stop war. Peaceful Coercion. And if he was successful, he would set an important precedent for neutral countries, but if it failed it would destroy the U.S. His policies hurt Americans the mostEmbargo Act of 1807They felt like Jefferson declared war on us. It annihilated the United States economy. The economy was growing every single year, until now. That caused a huge oversupply. There was too much stuff and not enough people to buy it, so it caused people to lower prices drastically. Docks were empty, federalists went nuts. Unemployed people everywhere. Jefferson supporters couldn't sell their goods because of oversupply. The supply chain dies in the U.S. We also shut down slave trade now (Jan 1, 1808) That's another part of the economy dies. If you were a desperate American, you smuggled. Especially along the US Canadian border. Many Americans label TJ as a king, media hates him.Response to Embargo Act (of 1807)"The Dam Bargo" or "Cursed Ograbme"writing in reverse shows defianceExports in 1 year went from 108 million to 22 million dollars. Imports, 108 million to 57 million. It was going horrible, TJ resents it and hates being president. NE wanted nullification and some wanted secession. March 1st, 1809 congress repeals the Embargo Act after 15 horrible months. 3 days before Jefferson leaves the white house. They had to replace it with something, so in its place, the Non-Intercourse Act. We reopened trade with everyone except GB and France. Pressure on the big two.Embargo Act (BAD)We reopened trade with everyone except GB and France. Pressure on the big two.Non-Intercourse ActPeaceful Coercion failed because Jefferson had delusions of grandeur. The brits were having some of their best crop years so they had enough and they had opened trade with Latin America. Napoleon had no shortage of food because he had almost all of Europe. They didn't NEED America. He overestimated their dependence on us, and they did not stop the Impressment of sailors, and Jefferson was never able to stop smuggling. When TJ died he did not put the president of the US on his grave. He hated it so that's why.Negative effects of EAWe had to start industrializing, the beginning of the industrial revolution. We started reopening the factories, and new factories grew and we became more self-sufficient. TJ did more in a way for the industrial revolution. TJ wanted a nation of small farmers, but because of his policies it had to start. Jefferson's policies were horrible but kept us out of war.Positive Impacts from EATJ chose James Madison to succeed him, Federalists put Charles Pickney. Madison wins comfortably. There are now factions in his party, cabinet, etc. He also can't dominate Congress anymore, the federalists gained during the Embargo because of how bad it was, but still Republicans control legislative and executive branches.Election 1808We needed to fix trade, and the Non Intercourse Act was due to expire in 1810. Madison and congress decide on *********** which reopens trade with everyone including Gb and France, BUT The United States will restore an embargo against the country that does not get rid of their trade restrictions. We were trying to motivate the countries to drop the trade restrictions. All they had to do was take away the Continental system (France's trade policy) or orders in council and we would put the Embargo on the other country. (GB or France)Macon's Bill No. 2.Napoleon takes the bait. He said he might repeal the Milan and Berlin decree if GB repealed Orders in Council. Madison gambles on Napoleon, and tells GB they had three months to drop their order in council. Napoleon was trying to be tricky with Madison. It was a half promise. Here's the problem: If you were the global hegemony, were you going to take orders from the little U.S. president, so George III and Parliament say no. James Madison's gamble failed. Madison has to put the embargo against GB. He does that. Now GB is targeted. Napoleon was the only winner. Napoleon doesn't drop his trade restrictions. It now looks like we were violating our neutrality. Siding with France. Our neutrality seemed to be over.Madison's failureIn this _______ the 12th congress came in. The 12th congress is a whole new batch of republicans, many from the south and west. As we as a nation grew, they had more population.Midterms of 1810They are labelled from federalist colleagues as "' ' because they want immediate war with GB. Their reasoning was because of impressment. It's illegal, and they killed sailors. They violated our neutral rights as a nation, and seized our cargo. Also the Brits were inciditing the natives and were promoting it. They paid for scalps. Violating our neutrality. The unwritten reason, the major reason we got involved, was because they wanted land. They wanted manifest destiny. They pressured Madison for warWar HawksNorthern War Hawks wantedCanadaSouthern War Hawks wantedTexas and Spanish landsThe first leader of the war hawks was ___ from KY. He was the speaker of the house (34y/o) He is huge in American government circles.Henry ClayThe second war hawk leader _____ from SCJohn C Calhounthere were lots of roadblocks in our way, Natives. They started getting more violent because of two brothers, the Shawnee brothers. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (The prophet) Tecumseh was the military leader, and the prophet was the religious leader who claimed he could move the heavens. They want to stop the American intrusion on their lands. They were very similar to Pontiac and Neolin. (Pontiac, military and Neolin being the religious) They wanted an pan-Indian alliance of all tribes east of the Mississippi to stop the white men, and wanted people to go back to their traditional beliefs. Indigenous people wanted to go back to their roots. If lands were to be sold all groups have to agree.Problems with nativesTecumseh was themilitary leaderTenskawtawa was theprophet (religious leader)The natives were on the war path and were attacking pioneers, so Madison ordered The general of Indiana territory (governor too), General William Henry Harrison. He was in command of over 2200 troops. He heads out to Tecumsuh's headquarters, across the Wabash and Tippecanoe rivers intersecting Prophetstown. Harrison was to take it out. Tecumseh wasn't there when he attacked, and was down south convincing other tribes to join them (recruiting) He was recruiting the Creek natives. The prophet attacks first (and the braves) It does not go well for the natives. The military completely obliatrees the natives. Prophetstown was burnt to the ground. Harrison was now a national hero "Old Tippecanoe" (and eventually became president) but the prophet's powers were now proven false, and the natives fled. Tecumseh's dream was crushed. Eventually Tecumseh's forces join the Brits. But it does open more land for American manifest destiny.Battle of Tippecanoe, November 7th, 1811Harrison was known asOld Tippecanoewar is inevitable. The British were arming natives, violating our rights, and wanting land, and Madison was getting pushed by his own party to go to war. Madison thinks he has no other choice, and he has to let the Nation know we have to go to war. Madison mainly turned to war to restore confidence in the republican experiment. (The U.s) protecting our democracy from a tyrannical GB. We needed to fight it for second independence. We needed to assert our independence. Trying to prove to the world we are a viable nation, and democracy will not fail.Spring of 1812June 1st, 1812, Madison asks congress to declare war. Causes heated debate in congress, but on June 18th, Congress declares war (79-49 in the house) on Gb. and 19-13 in the senate. This shows we were not united going into this fight, and no federalists voted for war. Federalists were against this, so it was a partisan war (divided parties) and it was very split along sectional divisions. NE was against it, and the south and the west were for it. The American people enter a war where we are very split.Americans were not united in this war.What happened five days before we declared war?Britain dropped their orders in council (showing flaws in international communication)you cannot impress a warshipInternational lawNE was near a state of treason because they saw the writing on the wall, it was more powerful for republicans so they were angry. A lot of federalists helped Brits during the war. All major banks were in the NE, and they gave loans to the Brits and London during the war. Americans smuggled goods to Canadians and Brits. A lot of NE governors ordered to fight not out of their home states. "Military doesn't fight in foreign wars" Some American troops allowed Brits to come in during the war.Fighting New England and Old EnglandWhat was the consequences of not listening to Washington's warningsWar and divisionhe declared war his popularity would go up, and was the first president to risk war for his popularity. The first president to risk everything for popularityJames Madison1812 election year Madison takes on Dewit Clinton, 128-89. He wins a second term, about 3 points in the popular vote, and the federalist party has gained some ground.Madison reelectedOne of the worst fought wars in American history (Mr. Madison's war)War of 1812We think that would translate to victory. Stupidly, in the first phase of the war, we went on the offensive. The Canadian Strategy, to take Canada. A 3 pronged attack. First prong, Upper Canada near York (Toronto) and captured Fort Malden, because it was the gateway to Lake Erie. The man in charge of this attack, General Hull, was in charge of securing upper Canada. He leaves from fort detroit to take it over, met by General Brock. General Brock wipes him out, they fall back to Fort Detroit, and Brock takes over Detroit. In the first prong we were unsuccessfulThe first prong of the Canadian StrategyThe second prong was in the Niagara frontier (Near Fort Niagara) the objective was to cross the St. Lawrence, and attack Queenstown heights and their fort there. The New York militia refused because their governor had said they can't fight outside their state, and they were unsuccessful. They were pushed back and the Brits entered NY and burned much of Buffalo, NY to the ground. The NE militia were not willing to fight.Prong 2 of Canadian strategyPhase one of the war of 1812Americans on offense, attempt to take CanadaThe third prong was to go up Lake Champlain and attack Montreal. The American commander was Henry Dearborn. He couldn't move well so he was carried around in ox carts, and was head of the main army (which was made up mainly of militia) . Dearborn orders the attack but NY and NE militia men refuse to fight and he calls off the attack. The first 3 prongs were a disaster.Third prongIt won several victories, and their most famous victory was against the Guerriere. It would win because it was inpernatable. The cannonballs would bounce off because of the reinforced hull. The nickname for it is Old Ironsides. Oldest commissioned ship in the entire U.S. navy. Most of our naval successes were along the Great Lakes.USS ConstitutionUSS ConstitutionOld Ironsidesled by (US) Captain Oliver "Hazard" Perry. It's significant because when we lost Fort Detroit, the navy protected them. To get the forts they had to take out the British Navy protecting the forts, and lead the way for General Harrison to launch a counterattack against the British and retake Fort Detroit and now capture Malden. We now had the gateway to Lake Erie.Battle of Put-In-Bay or Battle of Lake ErieHe follows them into Canada and attacks them in upper Canada, Battle *******. General Harrison defeats the Brits and burns down York (Toronto) and Tecumseh dies during the engagement. Thus, any hope for an Indian confederation dies with him. We did not hold any land in Canada after the attack, we went back to defend the newly acclaimed forts. We had some minor victories due to the Navy. The navy was more effective than the army.Battle of the Themes (Battle of Thames River)Which battle did the Battle of Lake Erie directly lead to?Battle of ThamesThe brits have set up a naval blockade around major cities along the Atlantic coast. It was working, we couldn't get foreign help and supplies, however, in phase * the Brits went on the offensive. The Americans go on the defensive. Americans go on the defense because the British stopped Napoleon. The blockade takes its toll and things aren't looking good for USPhase 2 of the warNapoleon got too greedy and captured most of continental Europe. Napoleon wanted to capture Russia, but it was bad weather, and too big. He got caught in the winters, they were too harsh and supply lines were too stretched out, and it was the beginning of the end. All of the allies come together and take over Paris. Napoleon loses and is arrested and sent into exile, to a prisoner island, the Isle of Elba. Off the coast of Tuscany. He does eventually escape. The Napoleonic Wars were over, so the Brits sent over 10,000 new soldiers to Canada.How Britain was able to go on the offensivewas to capture NY and NYC from Montreal. Down lake Champlain down the Hudson, and capture NY. They could isolate NE that way. They already tried this during the revolution in Saratoga. The key was the naval battle on Lake Champlain, Battle of Plattsburg. September 11, 1814.Prong 1 of Phase 2American captain, Thomas Macdonough, faces the British near Fort Ticonderoga. Macdonough wins, and the Brits were forced to retreat to Canada, and it starts bringing the peace negotiations in Europe. Unsuccessful britsBattle of Plattsburg (September 11, 1814)2nd prong was their attack on the Chesapeake bay, they have two destinations in the Chesapeake, Washington DC. and Baltimore. The brits were getting a force together of 4,000 troops to land in the Chesapeake under General Robert Ross, who wanted DC. The Americans had some regular troops, but most forces were reinforced by militia men, who were used to stop the attack, but the militia were really bad, and JM commanded some troops around DC for a short time. Major battle around Dc was the *****. The American troops were so scared of how the British troops were mulling down the first few lines, and so they ran back towards the capital, and legend has it the British started betting on the Americans. The ****. Running away from the brits while they were supposed to attack the capital. British forces enter on August 24th, 1814 and they burn it down. Many government buildings including the white house and the capital the only good thing was a major storm came and put out the buildings before they completely burned. Prong 2 part A was successfulBattle of Bladensburg and Bladensburg Races (Prong 2, part A)Who saved famous artwork while DC was being burnt downDolly MadisonBaltimore was guarded by Fort McHenry. It was heavily fortified (Where Star spangled was written, later on became the National Anthem. It was written by Francis Scott Key, a lawyer held aboard as prisoner on a British ship, the British let him write while they watched the bombs fly) and it was very unsuccessful. The star spangled banner was originally a poem, and four stanzas long. The irony was it was put to music of a British song. (A drinking song, Chester) Prong B was unsuccessful. Eventually the Brits realized the American capital was unlike a European capital, which didn't mean the war would be over, and the British evacuated. They destroyed DC but it did not bring the war closer to an end.Battle at Fort McHenryThe treaty process came before. The American and British exchanges start with the Czar of Russian (Alexander the First) Russia wanting the British on their side to help stop Napoleon. We sent over 5 diplomats. The leader was John Quincy Adams. Son of John Adams. He works out the arrangements, and the Brits send over the JV team. We signed the treaty on December 24 of 1814. This date is significant. The treaty of **** establishes the Status Quo antebellum. Meaning keeping things the way they were before the war. Almost like they decided no territory, neutral rights, arming the natives, it just established a cease fire (armistice) Nothing is given, no blame, etc. It just ends the war. The war is a draw, neither side wins anything.The Treaty of Ghent (Belgium)Meaning keeping things the way they were before the war. Almost like they decided no territory, neutral rights, arming the natives, it just established a cease fire (armistice) Nothing is given, no blame, etc. It just ends the war. The war is a draw, neither side wins anything.Status Quo Antebellum"old hickory" and "sharp knife"Andrew JacksonThe Battle of New OrleansJan 8, of 1815Occurring after the war was over. Jackson's army was very diverse, about 7,000 sailors, soldiers, regulars, African Americans, Frenchmen, Backwoods riflemen, etc. The brits thought it would be easy. They also outnumbered them by about 1000. British redcoats. Their arrogance gets the better of them. Pakenham orders a direct assault, no strategy. Jackson dug trenches, and they had sharpshooters shooting at the Brits. It was one of the worst losses of British military history, and the worst of the war. Over 2,000 British casualties. Americans suffer 70. The Americans easily won. When they win Jackson becomes a hero "The Hero of New Orleans" and the American people feel like we've won the war of 1812. (Technically it was a draw) but American patriotism and nationalism sky-rocket. We won the war yayyy. However, it's a good thing the treaty was signed because of how poorly shaped our economy was. Since 1807 it's been messed up. We haven't traded in 8 years, and the treasury was almost bankrupt, everything Hamilton did to save the economy was almost done for. The Bank of the US was not rechartered during 1811. Now with New Orleans, nobody remembers the failures. They had parades, fireworks, etc.The Battle of new OrleansBrits got troops in Jamaica, and they wanted New Orleans. It was important to our economy. British General Pakenham git ships and soldiers together and thought it would be an easy victory, but American General Andrew Jackson, was ready for them. Jackson was fresh off fighting the Creekbattle of Horseshoe BendThroughout the war NE remained a problem, and was the only place that prospered during the war because of all their smuggling. The British didn't levy a blockade on them until the end of the war. Federalists hated they were losing political power, their party was being shredded, adn republicans grew with the south and the west expanding. During the war some federalists discussed secession. Most didn't want to got that extreme, so they called together a convention to state their grievances to the country and tell them.federalistsDecember 15 (1814)-Jan 5 (1815) Right when the treaty was being finalized, and 3 days before New Orleans. 26 delegates from NE states. They felt like they were being abused by the growing south and west powers. They create the Hartford Resolutions, a series of demands placed on the country in which they hope will be added to the constitution. Some resolutions were that they wanted financial assistance for all their lost trade throughout the embargo act and war, and they lost millions of dollars, (ignoring the smuggling) the want reparations from the government and they wanted to change voting rules in congress, wanted a ⅔ vote for future embargos. (Simple majority rules) They want a ⅔ vote for future states instead of majority. Also, a ⅔ vote for declaring war (Against simple majority) The third thing they want was to end the ⅗ compromise. It benefited the south at the demise of NE. They also wanted a single term presidency. 2 terms was too long. They also wanted no successive presidents from the same state, because Virginia was being too widely recognized, prevent the Virginia dynasty. A new state. They get three envoys from the NE state and they carry their demands to DC and present them before congress, but they present the complaints at the same time as the Americans learned about the Treaty of Ghent, and the Battle of New Orleans. The federalists were laying a list of complaints after they "won". Congress saw it as treasonous at worst, and they were not passed. The beginning of the end was the end of the federalist party. They only run one more person for president. The federalists look snarky for saying what was wrong with America, and horrible context.The Hartford ConventionIt was a small war. The casualty rate was low, only about 6000 American casualties. (Killed, wounded, or missing in action) And we proved we were here to stay, it proved themselves a second time American bonds were strengthening, and our diplomats get more credit. Sectionalism is directed, our army and navy get more respect. Americanism and nationalism has come to the forefront. We also now have infant manufacturing, and the industrialization revolution was on its way. Northern factories and industry. We have known war heroes, Harrison and Jackson. The death of the federalist party. It also affected the natives, being the biggest loser. They lost many of their lands in the ORV and in the south, and forced them to sign numerous poor treaties, Tecumseh had died, no hope for pan-Indian alliance. Brings the end of our founding fathers, and a new era of American history. They were unable to solve two problems, problems with natives, and the problem with slavery. They kept pushing slavery issue off which leads to civil war. The era of the founding fathers is overOutcomes out of the war of 1812Napoleon escaped from Elba. He retakes control of the French military and tries again to conquer Europe, but he is stopped at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium, The Duke of Wellington beats him (British) ending the Napoleonic Wars in June of 1815. The emperor Napoleon was now gone, but it wasn't much better because all of the deposed monarchs he kicked out were back, and conservatives rule came back to Europe, lack of freedom and liberty, and it ended the French revolution, which never succeeded. The reign of terror to Napoleon to Tyranny, and back to the old monarchs. Europe does not give their citizens liberty, and the US falls back to isolationism. We were now looking at America first, Manifest destiny. Napoleon was put back into exile, St. Helena (off the coast of Africa) where he lived for 6 years and then died of stomach cancer.End of Napoleon's reignWho beat Napoleon after he escaped Elba and attacked in the Battle of Waterlooduke of WellingtonImmediately after the war. We celebrated, about 1-2 years. It's a misnomer, an inaccurate description because sectionalism pops up. It divides the north, south, east and west.The era of good feelingsrepublican's are demoniate, federalist on the way out, Republican nominee easily will win, James Monroe. (Madison's secretary of state) and studied law under Jefferson. He did a lil bit of everything. Madison follows Washington's traditions. The federalists nominated their final candidate, Rufus King. He had no chance. Monroe wins 183-34. Nation accepts we are transitioning to one party rule. Only party in town. The nation embraced it at first since two parties would not divide us anymore. It was very nationalistic. One party government is not true democracy. Monroe promotes this in his inaugural address. He takes federalist ideas and mixes them together with republican ideas. He talks about how we need a stronger army and navy, how we should embrace the industrial revolution, and he talks about the government having more power and promoting ideas of nationalism. Nationalism becomes big. A newspaper said Republicans out federalized federalism.Election of 1816last of the founding fathers to become presidentJames MonoreMonroe's cabinetSecretary of State: JQA Secretary of War: John C. Calhoun Secretary of Treasury: William H. Crawfordpopulation grow, and by the 1820 census, we were at 9.6 million, and finally NY became the number one populated state (Followed by PA). In 1820 N population was about 5. 1 million, while the south was 4.5 million (mostly slaved) separation between Norths and South. President Morone in office, celebrated, Monroe goes on a Goodwill tour to inspect the military defenses. He goes all over including NE and was welcomed there. Federalists started to accept the idea, and The Columbian coined it an Era of Good Feelings. New nationalism American literature, textbooks, history, magazines, paintings. Washington Irving, wtc. Birth of modern America is taking place, and a new national bank, new white house and capital, and finally defeated the Barbary Pirates in 1815.No more paying them tribute, Nationalism is running a muck. They were united under American idealism. This only lasts for a short period of timeEra of Good Feelings positivesTrade and Tariff (sectional issue)NE+ West: - South-Trade and the Tariff: Due to the embargo act, non intercourse, British blockade, and Macon's bill, American trade has been blocked by legislation or fleets. We were unable to trade easily. It did lead us to create our own factories, mills, etc. However, now that the war is over, the British start pouring all their goods into America again. They were cheap due to mass production, buying in bulk. Young American factories want congress to protect them. They are asking for a protective tariff. Since there was an upsurge in nationalism, and congress agrees. The Tariff of 1816. The first tariff in US history that is for protection, and not for revenue. It's aim is to protect American manufacturing against international competition, the tariff rate is now at 20-25 percent. Causes Brits to have to raise their prices. This helps American businesses since they didn't have to pay the tariff. This protects American industries. Not a super high tariff, and it's a start to protect businesses. It was very nationalistic. At first Americans like it, but different regions take a different take on the issue. Sectionalism is created. The NE loves the tariff. They love it because they have the most small industries and factories. The only people in NE who didn't like it were NE merchants because they are engaged in international trade, and they can get reciprocal tariffs, where another country raises their tariffs as well. That could lead to a trade war. Westerners and Southerners don't like it. Southerners don't like it because they are engaged in the cotton trade. It would raise taxes on their cotton, and shipping costs would rise too. Consumers would have to pay more now. Americans could raise their prices a bit, so American consumers pay more. Sectionalism based around trade (Eventually leading to the civil war, north, for, south, against) Some politicians get together and say they don't want it to ruin nationalism, and to save the country we would always turn to Henry Clay (The Great Compromiser)sectional issues 1The Great CompromiserHenry ClayHenry Clay created a plan to create a profitable home marketplace that was not reliant on Europe for it's goods. Self sufficiency. He created the ***** System. He creates it whereby all regions of the country benefit from each other, to appease everyone and stop sectionalism. The American system gets a strong central banking system, and Clay knows during the war our economy went to shit, so he wants a second BUS. A second BUS could regulate money supply, give loans, etc. Clay knows if we want an economic powerhouse, we have to start giving loans out to make capitalism grow. Capitalism=powerhouse. Borrow money to expand. He thinks it will help the American marketplace. It helped Westerns to borrow money to buy land and move out west as well as helping NE invest. Second part of AS was a protective tariff. It was good to help NE manufacturers. It also raises tax rates on foreign goods into the treasury, to use the revenue from the tariff to create a transportation network /internal improvements. Things like roads and canals. We needed infrastructure so we could move west, and trade, and needed highways and canals to get an internal merchant system. Basically mercantilism. RAw materials from south and west go to NE factories so they can turn it into finished goods and they could sell the goods back. Everyone profits and all trade. More self sufficient. Create a self sufficient home market, Trying to bring the country together economically and politically, so the AS can benefit each segment of the country. However, due to sectionalism, all three will not work together at one time during Henry Clay's life. He promoted it to congress, but no time all three worked together in unison (1 and 3, 2 and 1, etc) due to sectionalism.The American System by Henry ClayFederal government should get leadership to make roads. He wanted the FG to divvy up 1.3 million dollars to distribute the money across all the states. Usually western states create more internal improvements. He wanted the FG to take control over federal improvements. It was passed, but it went to Lame duck president Madison (November-March) and Madison vetoed it. Madison feared it (strict constructionist) because they weren't in the constitution, and he felt like the states were individually responsible for internal infrastructure. One step away from government being a lot more powerful, and they think it would be too much power for the federal government. Now it's up to individual states and private businesses to create infrastructure. Many states start setting up there own trade networks, like the Erie Canal. It connects NYC to the Midwest (Old Northwest) to the Great Lakes. Take goods from the interior of the country, and sell them to NYC. The state of NY pays for it, and NYC becomes a trade hub.Bonus Bill of 1817, Created by John C. Calhoun.Biggest trade network created in 1800sErie CanalWestern lands and land sales.Between 1791-1819 we have 9 new states added to the union. Every time we add states, we make sure to keep the number of slave states and free states balanced. By 1819, 22 states, 11 free and 11 slave. So, we were growing by leaps and bounds, western expansion, and new oppruintoes for people to move west. Massive western boom. We have abundant and cheap land out west. Congress passed the Land Act of 1820, buy 80 acres for a 1.25 an acre on federal lands that were divided up by the Land Ordinances. It was intriguing to European immigrants. They knew they could get cheap and abundant land, and start a new American life. They wanted to go out to the frontier, and another reason that tobacco killed a lot of land in the east. Elites remain, but many small former tobacco farmers looked for new lands (Tobacco exhausts soil) Land speculation too. A person who buys a bunch of land and then sells it for a profit. They wanted to go out West and they would sell and buy cheap lands, and the natives were so weakened that they could. It was hard on natives, and better transportation. We had the cumberland road. From Maryland to Illinois, so anywhere on the national road you can create a nice little homestead in the ORV and we now have steam boats. Steam boats make you able to go upstream. We could trade up and down rivers. We could move west easier. Western land boom, but west was weak politically from starting out. This causes sectionalism because the NE does not like cheap western land because it's less people for NE and make them weaker politically. Also, now, wages have to go up to keep factory workers from leaving. The NE doesn't like it, and some southerners, especially Great Planters because it leaves room for cotton competition. They fear competition and they are against western land sales as wellSecond sectional issueWho invented the steamboat?Robert Fulton (Clermont)THE BANK. Bank was not rechartered in 1811 and because we lost the bank in 1812 we had an economic downturn. Bank is renewed in 1816 (Second BUS) It was 35,000,000 attached, the US government controls 20% of stock and the perfect place to put funds. The problem with the bank was that it was very weak and lent out too much money and let wildcat banks pop up over the west, and they lent out money too freely, and gave out bad loans. We start seeing is too much overspectuion and too many land sales. That creates the Panic of 1819. In the 1800s depressions were known as panics. They usually begin because of overspection. Land gambling in short. Westerns love it because they get cheap land, but the west was hit hardest dyring the panic, peoples homes were taken adn were thrown to debtors prison. Soup kitchen, banks fail, etc. To stop this the bank gets new leadership, Nicholas Bittle. He puts an end to reckless ending and tightens money supply, and only solid banks exist. Bittle tends to favor NE elites, stockholders, foreign investors, and westerns hate the bank now because they can't get loans. Bank becomes finical devil. NE loves it, West hates it. Make sectionalismthird sectional issueHe puts an end to reckless ending and tightens money supply, and only solid banks exist. Bittle tends to favor NE elites, stockholders, foreign investors, and westerns hate the bank now because they can't get loans. Bank becomes finical devil. NE loves it, West hates it. Make sectionalismNicholas BittleMO applies for statehood, the Missouri Enabling Act. They are applying to be a slave state and would throw off the balance being 12-11, giving slave states 2 more senators and give them more votes. Northern go crazy. We were back to the drawing board, so across the nation, everyone was arguing about MO. Everybody seemingly joins it, slave owners want it to be a slave state (but some don't for competition regions) homesteaders didn't want it. Different people have different opinions on MO because this could set a precedent for the future of the LA territory. Where MO goes, the rest of LA could have slavery as well. The abloshinsts were growing in number now. They argued against slavery in MO.Slavery issuesJames Tallmadge from NY, the ****** A******t. He proposes in the amendment, MO can be a slave state, but no new slaves can be introduced into MO and all slaves will be freed at the age of 25. He wanted to manipulate it, and they both passed in the house. It doesn't pass in the senate.Tallmadge AmendmentWhat was the slavery issue actually about (It hurts whites moving on the frontier. Homesteaders, farmers, ranchers, etc. It also would give the south the advantage in the senate, so they had to block the spread. Now we are at a standstill with congress arguing.Politics and economicsMO becomes a slave state. Slavery was still legal then, so it was up to them. But, to maintain the balance, we needed a northern state, so they created Maine. Maine had been a part of Massachusetts, so now it's its own free state, now it is 12-12. We needed more than that though.MO Compromise of 1820Who creates Missouri compromise line? (All the new lands above the line were free states, and below would be slave states. Also runaway slaves would be returned as a side agreement. This keeps the union together for the next 34 years.)Jesse Thomas, ILWhere is the MO Compromise line set at?36 degrees by 30' N Lat.What did the MO compromise NOT solve?Ethics of slavery"We have the wolf by the ears. And we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self preservation on the other." The wolf meaning slavery, if you have it by the ears, we don't have a good hold on it. We can't hold slavery, but we can't just let them safely go. This is the issue of all issues. Second part, freeing the slaves in one part, one scale, but in the other, self preservation, keeping the union together. If they end slavery the south would secede and cause war. He is predicting the civil war. It never solves the issue of division over slavery.TJ, A Firebell in the Nighta regular president would never be reelected, but Monroe is running unopposed, and he wins 231-1. Second highest voted for. The one person voted for JQA. Monroe wins a second term despite the panic, disarray, and chaos.Election of 18201819. THE BUS puts branches into a variety of other states. The state of MD does not want a branch in Baltimore because they don't feel the federal government has the right to do that. They said it was unconstitutional and was a reserved power. Since it was already in Baltimore, they raised super high taxes on the BUS branch in Baltimore. Then the head of the bank, *****, doesn't pay it. Marshall wanted a case like this. Marshall declares the BUS is constitutional. Due to implied powers, the elastic clause, if congress determines the BUS is necessary and proper, they can do it. The BUS is constitutional. He denies that the states have the power to tax federal agencies that are chartered by the federal government entities. "Because the power to tax involves the power to destroy" You cannot destroy the bank. Federal institutions are superior to state ones. Expand the power of the federal government over the states.McCulloch v MDWhat was the main thing Johnny Boy wanted in McCullough v MDstates don't have the power to tax federal agencies that are chartered by the federal government entities.The SECOND is ***** v VA, 1821. ***** brothers buy a lot of lottery tickets in DC which were legal. They took the tickets to VA where it was illegal, and illegally sold them. VA arrests them. It makes it to the VA State Supreme court, and they are found guilty and fined, and they appeal it. John MArshall accepts the appeal. Once the supreme court reviews it and rules on it, they agree with the VA state supreme court. By doing this, he reviewed a state supreme court decision, Judicial review over state courts. The Supreme court has the final say, and the last court of appeals. More Power to them over local courts. States rights people hate thisCohens v VAJohnny Boy in Cohens v VA?he reviewed a state supreme court decision, Judicial review over state courts. The Supreme court has the final say, and the last court of appeals.*(****8 v *****, 1824. The Steamboat Case. The state of NY gave a steamboat license/monopoly to Aaron Ogden, and got a monopoly of transportation between NY and NJ. he got control of it. He loves it. Well Thomas Gibbens creates a competing line, and applies for a federal license and competes with Ogden, adn Ogden doesn't like that. He sues and it reaches Marshall. Marshall says that Ogden's monopoly was illegal because the state of NY has no power over transportation between NY and NJ, and interstate commerce. Trade between states. This encapsulates everything across state lines, Article 1, section 8 of the constitution and can only be regulated by the federal government and not the state. Even to this very day. Gibbons wins, and now it gives more power to the federal government.Gibbons v OgdenJohnny Boy in Gibbons v OgdenInterstate commerce regulated by government&&&&&r v ****, 1810. The GA legislature is going to grant 35,000,000acres of land (Yazoo land strip) to the Yazoo Land Companies. (Yazoo river country) The YLC were bribing the Georgian politicians. It's too late however, because they are already selling the lands to innocent third parties, but GA people are PISSED. When the new GA gets elected, they pass the law to take away all the land. Take away their private property since it was obtained through fraud. It makes its way to the supreme court. Marshall says the land distributed to third parties cannot be taken from them,a dnt he land grants under law were contracts, and contracts in article 1, section 10 (contract clause) and contracts were sacred. Once it's passed to third parties you're screwed. From the public and state laws it's protected. He voided a state law. Judicial review of the supreme court over state legislatures.Fletcher v PeckJohnny Boy in Fletcher v Peckvoided a state law. Judicial review of the supreme court over state legislatures. Private property rights******** v *******, 1819. Dartmouth College received a charter in 1769 from George III. The NH state legislature wants to change the charter to make it a state college instead of a private college. A lot of the alumni don't want it to change, including Daniel Webster. He defends them against the state legislature. John Marshall rules the original charter must stand, to protect contacts from state governments. He creates a stable environment for businesses that they cannot have their rights taken due to popular pressure and legislature. They protect American freedoms, rights, and capitalism. Contract rights + federal over state. Stable right over private property, state to expand, etc.Dartmouth College v WoodwardJohnny Boy in Dart. C v Wrules the original charter must stand, to protect contacts from state governments. He creates a stable environment for businesses that they cannot have their rights taken due to popular pressure and legislature. They protect American freedoms, rights, and capitalism. Contract rights + federal over state. Stable right over private property, state to expand, etc.Shaped by nationalism. Everyone wants America to grow, and they see American greatness. Monroe and JQA were nationalists through and through. JQA is the greatest secretary of state in US history. Two nations to deal with on the continent, Brits and Spain. Coming out of the war with 1812 we want a better relationship with GB.Foreign Policy: Era of Good FeelsIt stops us from discriminating against each other during trade. We opened our ports to them and the will open their colonies to us. We could trade in southeastern Asia and the British east indies. By doing this they want to avoid peaceful coercion. Open market with the Brits.Commercial Convention of 1815The second treaty we made with Britain was the *****. Following the war, both the US and Brits were in a naval race in the great lakes. On the north side Brits are building ships and south are the US. Who could build more warships, and it was looking tense. By signing the treaty, only one more ship was allowed per country on Lake Champlian and Lake Ontario. The likelihood of those ships seeing each other was very low. The remainder of the great lakes could have two warships per country. HOMES. You might never see another country's warship. We were trying to make an unguarded border between the US and Canada, the first disarmament treaty. A peacetime treaty to disarm freely. Disarming their weapons, warships in this case. More peaceful relations with GB.Rush-Bagot agreement/treaty of 1817****. Some problems with Brits, over fishing rights. Fishing is a lucrative business. American fishermen and Canadian fishermen were ready to go to war. The first part of the treaty gives joint- fishing rights off Newfoundland and Labrador coasts. Both American and Canadian fisherman can fish freely. Solve the fishing problem. Nobody knows the northern boundary where Louisiana is. We had to figure out the Northern border. 49 degrees north latitude. It extends from lake of the woods Minnesota to the Crest of the rocky mountains.The Convention of 1818******* (PART OF CONVENTION) One last argument between them, Oregon. Oregon territory was all up to Alaska, and nobody knew who owed it. We decided to jointly occupy the Oregon territory. The joint occupation is for a decade. (We continued to extend it every ten years until 1846) We established a solid foreign policy will our recent enemy. We solved many issues with them.Treaty line of 1818Spain controlled Florida. We've had our eyes on Florida since Spain got it back after the revolution. Spain was losing control over many of the colonies across central america, etc. Trying to create their own democratic republics. The US supports that. Big Three: Argentina, Venezuela, and Chile. They were close to gaining their freedom which Spain was trying to prevent. That leaves Florida in a state of nature, nobody to rule it. The Seminals in Florida were raiding Georgia and then would head back over the border. They'd be in Spanish territory so there was nothing we could do. The second thing is runaway slaves would go to Florida. That was problematic because under Pickney's, Spain was supposed to return runaways. They were too busy with their revolutions to return. If Spain can't handle it, JQA convinces Monroe to send Jackson to the border. Jackson crosses into Florida instead. He takes them into Florida, and goes after the native tribes beginning the 8*******. He punished them. He takes over two Spanish cities, St. Marks and Pennescola. He also comes across two british citizens who were helping the seminoles and he hangs them. Jackson started a war on his own in foreign territory.First Seminole War (1817-1818)The first part: Florida is given to the United States. They did this because they sacrificed Florida for Texas. They knew we wanted Texas, so if we gave them Florida we'd leave Texas alone. It also figures out the southern and western border. The last part establishes the southern border of Oregon at 42 N latitude. (The Transcontinental Treaty gets its name from there)We worked out our disagreements with Spain now.Adams-Onis Treaty (Or Florida Purchase Treaty or the Transcontinental Treaty)Henry Clay puts Jackson on charges for illegally attacking foreign nations, Congress can only declare war, not executive. Clay does this because he was from KY and JAckson was from Ten. So if Clay could defame him he could be president. JQA defends Jackson and Congress finds him not guilty. Clay does not get the charges against JQA upheldThe president can send troops wherever they want, and expands presidential war powers.All the monarchs come back after Napoleon and stop democratic uprisings. They want to help Spain with the Latin Americans. They form the Quadruple Alliance. Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France. They help Spain fight against the American revolutionaries. They wanted to restore the Spanish king and they feared it would happen in their colonies. Autocratic dictators trying to restore monarchies. We didn't want that to happen, and we wanted to trade with them. We didn't want the monarchy. George Canning reaches out to JQA and asks them if we wanted to stop the Europeans together against imperialism. JQA says no. We could do it alone. The US makes the Monroe Doctrine. JQA didn't trust the Brits, plus JQA was brilliant because if we make the statement the British navy will enforce it because they wanted to trade too. December 2nd 1823, written by JQA. The four points: A non colonization. We were focused on Russia, because the czar of Russia started claiming lands from Alaska to San Fran. We didn't want this, so non colonization focuses on no new colonies that can be formed in the western hemisphere. You can keep the colonies you own, but you can't take any new lands. The age of colonization is now over. 2nd, Non intervention. The Eastern hemisphere is the world of monarchy, and told them to keep their form of government on their hemisphere. Free, western, Monarchy- East. 3rd point: Abstention. You can stay out of our hemisphere and we will stay out of yours. We will not get involved with their foreign wars. No entangling alliances, bringing back isolationism. 4th, no transfer. The intention being if you're losing a colony, you can't transfer it to another major power. It is the greatest statement of nationalism in the Era of Good Feelings. Basically, we will be the hegimone. We can control the countries and dominate our trade. Setting us up to be the hegimone. It was never a law though. It was simply a state,ent. The navy does it for us. The monarchs were irate with it. The very last thing: The Czar we make the Russo- American treaty of 1824. We fix the southern possessions of Russia at the panhandle of Alaska, 54 degrees by 40 minutes north latitude as far south as russia can goMonroe Doctrine of 1823Quadruple Alliance, Holy AllianceAustria, Prussia, Russia, and Great BritainMonroe doctrine led to?End of colonizationWe fix the southern possessions of Russia at the panhandle of Alaska, 54 degrees by 40 minutes north latitude as far south as Russia can goRusso- American treaty of 1824