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CHAPTER 1 History of Microbiology

Gene therapy is a modern approach to preventing infectious disease
Modern biologists had to revise Linnaeus's system of taxonomy because __________.
he grouped all organisms into only two categories
Which of the following fields of modern microbiology is NOT directly concerned with the genetic characteristics of a cell?
Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of
genetic engineering
All of the following individuals showed that cleanliness played a role in human disease
Nightingale, Semmelweis and Lister
What did the work of Lister and Ehrlich have in common?
They both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
The study of the body's defenses against pathogens is called
The study of the causation of disease is known as:
Put the following events in the history of microbiology in order, from the earliest to the latest:
I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.
II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.
III. Woese discovers the archaea.
IV. Fracastoro proposes that "germs" cause disease.
V. Ehrlich discovers the first "magic bullet."
Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology?
What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?
Robert Koch was involved in research on all of the following topics
-the cause of tuberculosis
-the cause of anthrax.
- development of a method to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
-techniques for isolating microbes in the laboratory.
The term __________ refers to an infection acquired in a health care setting.
Microorganisms characterized by the absence of a nucleus are called:
the following are correct pairing?
-algae: aquatic and marine habitats
-viruses: acellular parasites
-prokaryotes: no nuclei
-fungi: cell walls
The study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease is known as:
the following are the observation Pasteur made concerning the fermentation of grape juice?
-yeast can grow in sealed or open flasks of grape juice.
-bacteria produce acid in grape juice.
-yeast cells can grow and reproduce in grape juice.
-yeast can grow with or without oxygen.
The microbial production of alcohol from sugar is known as
The following are the example of a fungus.
the following are characteristic of protozoa
they are the microbes most similar to plants
The first true vaccine protected against disease caused by a ________ pathogen.
Put the following steps of Koch's postulates in order: a. The suspected infectious agent must be isolated and grown outside the host. b. The suspected infectious agent causes the disease when it is introduced to a healthy, susceptible animal. c. The suspected infectious agent must be found in every case of the disease. d. The suspected infectious agent must be found in the diseased experimental host.
c, a, b, d
Koch's postulates can be used only to prove the causes of infectious diseases.
Which of the following scientists provided evidence in favor of the concept of spontaneous generation?
Which of the following NOT true for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection?
The disease is prevented by vaccination
What do hepatitis A and hepatitis B have in common?
Both can be prevented by a vaccine.
What organ is most affected by hepatitis B virus?
Microbiologists study parasitic worms because __________.
they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens
Whose experiments seemingly proved the existence of a "life force"?
How are the bacteria and the archaea different from all the other cellular microbes?
They have no nucleus
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protozoa?
they are the microbes most similar to plants.
Proteins that promote chemical reactions in the cell are called
John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology?
both infection control and epidemiology
Joseph Lister reduced the incidence of wound infections in health care settings by using chlorinated lime water.
What was the first disease proven to be bacterial in origin?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to
view protozoa and bacteria
Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat
Lazzaro Spallanzani was the first scientist to provide evidence disproving the spontaneous generation of microorganisms.
The microbes commonly known as ________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile.
The term for the use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments is:
All of the following were involved in developing the germ theory of disease
- Pasteur.
- Snow.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of which of the following types of microbes?
The organisms infecting Martin are unicellular and do not have a nucleus. They are extremely small but can be seen with a light microscope when stained. Which of the following categories of microorganisms would they be classified in?
Martin has cholera, a disease that played a key role in good public health hygiene standards. Snow's research into cholera outbreaks in London provided the foundation for what branches of Microbiology?
A toxin made by certain strains of Vibrio cholera produce the serious gastrointestinal symptoms and water loss characterized by cholera. The study of that toxin, its biochemistry, and its effect on human cells would be called ______________.
molecular biology
Which of the following scientists was the first to develop a taxonomic system for classifying organisms?
Semmelweis advocated handwashing as a method of preventing which of the following diseases?
puerperal fever
Which of the following are the characteristic of viruses?
-they are composed of genetic material and protein.
-they are acellular.
-they are smaller than prokaryotic cells.
-they are obligatory parasites
Who was the scientist who first hypothesized that gene sequences could provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between organisms such as microbes?
Christian Gram devised a staining technique that divides all bacteria into two groups.
the following statements about algae are true
-they provide most of the oxygen on Earth.
-they are a source of food for aquatic and marine animals
-the group includes seaweeds and kelps.
-they are photosynthetic organisms
Which of the following scientists showed that fermentation does not require living cells?
The production of human blood-clotting factor by E. coli is an example of bioremediation.
Fermentation can occur in the absence of living cells.
The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by
developing methods for reducing nosocomial infections.
A microorganism has the following characteristics: eukaryotic, multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long filaments. What is its general classification?
Spallanzani's experiments concerning spontaneous generation were not universally accepted because __________.
he eliminated air from his flasks by sealing them
Which of the following groups of scientists did NOT contribute to research in microbial genetics?
Winogradsky and Beijerinck
Winogradsky studied the microbial recycling of sulfur in the environment, while Beijerinck studied the nitrogen cycle in bacteria.
Robert Koch developed a vaccine to prevent anthrax after identifying the causative agent.
All of the following individuals were involved in improving public health in the 19th century
the following are the aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?
The necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape.
The flasks were free of microbes until they were opened.
He boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present.
The flasks were incubated for very long periods of time.
Which of the following taxonomic kingdoms were recognized by Linnaeus?
plants and animals
Who discovered penicillin?
The microbial activity of ________ is responsible for the production of various foods.
both fungi and bacteria
Which of the following statements about fungi is FALSE?
fungi are photosynthetic
What was Leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology?
He developed the first microscope
The term __________ means the study of the blood components that fight infection.
Walter Reed proved that a virus causes yellow fever in humans.
The term that literally means "against putrefaction" is:
Who first promulgated the theory of abiogenesis
Who hypothesixed that a bacterial colony arises from a sigle bacterial cell
Robert Koch
Who first hypothesized that medical personnel can infect patients with pathogens
Ignaz Semmelweis
Leeuwenthok described microorganisms as
A scientist who studes tha role of microorganisms in the environment is
an enrionmental microbiolgist
The laboratoy of robert Koch contributed the following to the microbiology
-simple staining technique
-use of Petri dishes
-first photomicrograph of bacteria
Louis Pasteur and Eduard Buchner
Louis Pasteur
-Biotechnology and food microbiology
-Germ theory of disease
'Father of Microbiology"
Martinus Beijerinck and Sergei Winogradsky
Enrironmental microbiology
Robert Koch
First photomicrograph of bacteria
Paul Ehrlich
sought a " magic bullet" to destroy pathogens
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Discover of bacteria
Discover of protozoa
Edward Jenner
Developed smallpox immunization
" founder of antiseptic surgery"
Hans Christian Gram
developed the most widely used bacterial staining technique