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Modern biologists had to revise Linnaeus's system of taxonomy because __________.
he grouped all organisms into only two categories
Which of the following fields of modern microbiology is NOT directly concerned with the genetic characteristics of a cell?
Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of
All of the following individuals showed that cleanliness played a role in human disease
Nightingale, Semmelweis and Lister
What did the work of Lister and Ehrlich have in common?
They both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
Put the following events in the history of microbiology in order, from the earliest to the latest:
I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.
II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.
III. Woese discovers the archaea.
IV. Fracastoro proposes that "germs" cause disease.
V. Ehrlich discovers the first "magic bullet."
IV, I, II, V, III
Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology?
What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?
Robert Koch was involved in research on all of the following topics
-the cause of tuberculosis
-the cause of anthrax.
- development of a method to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
-techniques for isolating microbes in the laboratory.
the following are correct pairing?
-algae: aquatic and marine habitats
-viruses: acellular parasites
-prokaryotes: no nuclei
-fungi: cell walls
the following are the observation Pasteur made concerning the fermentation of grape juice?
-yeast can grow in sealed or open flasks of grape juice.
-bacteria produce acid in grape juice.
-yeast cells can grow and reproduce in grape juice.
-yeast can grow with or without oxygen.
Put the following steps of Koch's postulates in order: a. The suspected infectious agent must be isolated and grown outside the host. b. The suspected infectious agent causes the disease when it is introduced to a healthy, susceptible animal. c. The suspected infectious agent must be found in every case of the disease. d. The suspected infectious agent must be found in the diseased experimental host.
c, a, b, d
Which of the following scientists provided evidence in favor of the concept of spontaneous generation?
Which of the following NOT true for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection?
The disease is prevented by vaccination
Microbiologists study parasitic worms because __________.
they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens
How are the bacteria and the archaea different from all the other cellular microbes?
They have no nucleus
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protozoa?
they are the microbes most similar to plants.
John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology?
both infection control and epidemiology
Joseph Lister reduced the incidence of wound infections in health care settings by using chlorinated lime water.
Lazzaro Spallanzani was the first scientist to provide evidence disproving the spontaneous generation of microorganisms.
The microbes commonly known as ________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile.
All of the following were involved in developing the germ theory of disease
The organisms infecting Martin are unicellular and do not have a nucleus. They are extremely small but can be seen with a light microscope when stained. Which of the following categories of microorganisms would they be classified in?
Martin has cholera, a disease that played a key role in good public health hygiene standards. Snow's research into cholera outbreaks in London provided the foundation for what branches of Microbiology?
A toxin made by certain strains of Vibrio cholera produce the serious gastrointestinal symptoms and water loss characterized by cholera. The study of that toxin, its biochemistry, and its effect on human cells would be called ______________.
Which of the following scientists was the first to develop a taxonomic system for classifying organisms?
Semmelweis advocated handwashing as a method of preventing which of the following diseases?
Which of the following are the characteristic of viruses?
-they are composed of genetic material and protein.
-they are acellular.
-they are smaller than prokaryotic cells.
-they are obligatory parasites
Who was the scientist who first hypothesized that gene sequences could provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between organisms such as microbes?
the following statements about algae are true
-they provide most of the oxygen on Earth.
-they are a source of food for aquatic and marine animals
-the group includes seaweeds and kelps.
-they are photosynthetic organisms
The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by
developing methods for reducing nosocomial infections.
A microorganism has the following characteristics: eukaryotic, multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long filaments. What is its general classification?
Spallanzani's experiments concerning spontaneous generation were not universally accepted because __________.
he eliminated air from his flasks by sealing them
Which of the following groups of scientists did NOT contribute to research in microbial genetics?
Winogradsky and Beijerinck
Winogradsky studied the microbial recycling of sulfur in the environment, while Beijerinck studied the nitrogen cycle in bacteria.
All of the following individuals were involved in improving public health in the 19th century
the following are the aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?
The necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape.
The flasks were free of microbes until they were opened.
He boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present.
The flasks were incubated for very long periods of time.
The microbial activity of ________ is responsible for the production of various foods.
both fungi and bacteria
What was Leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology?
He developed the first microscope
A scientist who studes tha role of microorganisms in the environment is
an enrionmental microbiolgist
The laboratoy of robert Koch contributed the following to the microbiology
-simple staining technique
-use of Petri dishes
-first photomicrograph of bacteria
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