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when electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom,

energy is released

in the reaction C612O6 + 6 O2 + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O,

oxygen becomes reduced

a substrate that is phosphorylated

has an increased reactivity; it is primed to do work

produces approximately three ATP for every NADH that is oxidized

oxidative phosphorylation

involves the redox reactions of the electron transport chain

oxidative phosphorylation

involves an ATP synthase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane

oxidative phosphorylation

depends on chemiosmosis

oxidative phosphorylation

Substrate-level phosphorylation

is the energy source for facultative anaerobes under anaerobic conditions

major reason that glycolysis is not as energy-productive as respiration

pyruvate is more reduced than CO2; it still contains much of the energy from glucose

net products of glycolysis

2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate

electron carrier molecules Q and cytochrome c

are mobile carriers that transfer electrons between the electron carrier complexes

when pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA

a multienzyme complex removes a carboxyl group, transfers electrons to NAD+, & attaches a coenzyme

# of molecules of CO2 that are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the Krebs cycle


chemiosmotic mechanism

ATP production is linked to the proton gradient established by the electron transport chain

ATP synthase location

inner membrane of the mitochondrion (produced in matrix) and cytosol

fermentation location

cell cytosol

glycolysis location

cell cytosol

substrate-level phosphorylation location

cytosol & matrix

when glucose is oxidized to CO2 & water, approximately 40% of its energy is transferred to


from an energetic viewpoint, what do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?

ATP & recycled NAD+

glucose, made from 6 radioactively labeled carbon atoms, is fed to yeast cells in the absence of oxygen. how many molecules of radioactive alcohol are formed from each molecule of glucose?


why do fats produce lots of ATP per gram?

they are highly reduced compounds

fats and proteins can be used as fuel in the cell because they

can be converted to intermediates of glycolysis or the Krebs cycle

an allosteric enzyme

enzyme phosphofructokinase

inhibited by citrate

enzyme phosphofructokinase

pacemaker of glycolysis & respiration.

enzyme phosphofructokinase

early enzyme in the glycolytic pathway

enzyme phosphofructokinase

substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of ATP formation when glucose is oxidized to CO2 & water?


cyanide is a poison that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transport chain. Which of the following is a metabolic effect of this poison?

no proton gradient would be produced, and ATP synthesis would cease

enzyme that would use NAD+ as a coenzyme

triose phosphate dehydrogenase

cellular respiration compounds order

glucose -> fructose biphosphate -> glyceraldehyde phosphate -> pyruvate -> CO2 -> acetyl CoA

compound that has the highest free energy (will produce the most ATP when oxidized)

fructose bisphosphate

why is glycolysis considered one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?

nearly universal, is located in the cytosol, & does not involve O2

metabolic function of fermentation

oxidize NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue in the absence of oxygen

reduction reaction

adding of electrons, which reduce amount of positive charge of atom

oxidation of a molecule of FADH2 yields less ATP than a molecule of NADH yields because FADH2

passes its electrons to a transport molecule

role of oxygen in cellular respiration

final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain

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