51 terms

AP Human Geography Chapter 10: Agriculture and Land Usage

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Government subsidy
Benefit given by the government or individuals usually in the form of cash payment or tax reduction. Given to remove burden and allow farmers to grow crops not demanded by the public. (Ex: government subsidy to America farmers to grow corn.)
Recombinant Bovine-Growth Hormone
Growth hormone made in a laboratory using genetic technology. On the market, it can be used on cows to change their natural milk production. (Ex: milk production increases by three times as much.)
Transhumance
Seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and low-land pasture areas. Flock is moved from season to season, where the grass/feed is. (Ex: sheep can be herded up the mountains in the summer, and down to the valleys during the summer.)
Intensive subsistence agriculture
Farmers must work more intensively to subsist on a parcel of land. Farmers have a smaller piece of land to provide for their food. (Ex: type of agriculture dominant in Asia and other developing countries.)
Milkshed
The ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling. Area where milk can be transported without spoiling. (Ex: Due to better transportation and refrigeration, milksheds are now wider in diameter and more milk products can be transported farther.)
Pasture
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing. (Ex: a field or meadow where free-range animals graze.)
Combine
Machine that performs reaping, threshing, and cleaning of wheat. All three jobs are completed by one machine, making wheat production easier and more efficient. (Ex: large scale wheat production results from the combine.)
Ranching
Commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Practiced in arid to semi-arid lands and in MDCs where vegetation is sparse and soil is too poor for crops to be supported. (Ex: cattle herded by Cowboys along a trail towards the railroad, where they are taken to the city for slaughter.)
Grain
Seed from various grasses. Commercial grain agriculture creates a surplus so it can be sold to humans and used in animal feed. (Ex: wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet, etc.)
Desertification
Human actions are causing land to deteriorate to a desert-like condition. Semi-arid lands are overused due to population growth and overfarming. (Ex: excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting exhausts the soil.)
Green Revolution
Invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques. Introduction of higher-yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizers. (Ex: genetic engineering, lab created fertilizers, etc.)
Truck farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming because "truck" was a Middle English word for bartering. Truck farms grow many fruits and vegetables that consumers in developed societies demand. (Ex: asparagus, peppers, mushrooms, strawberries are all grown.)
Sustainable agriculture
Agricultural practice that pressures and enhances environmental quality. Distinguished by sensitive land management, limited use of chemicals, and better integration of crops and livestock. (Ex: organic farming)
Plantation
Large farm that specializes in one or two crops. Usually in Latin American/tropical climate regions. (Ex: bananas, tea, cocoa, coconuts, palm oil)
Cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food. Usually mass produced, the staple of a diet. (Ex: wheat, rye, oats, barley)
Commercial agriculture
The production of food primarily for the sale off the farm. One farmer can mass produce a crop to feed many other people. They sell their food for a profit, rather than eating it on the farm. (Ex: usually found in MDCs)
Subsistence agriculture
Production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer and his family. Crops are grown for eating on the farm rather than making a surplus and selling it for a profit. (Ex: usually found in LDCs.)
Ridge tillage
System of planting crops on ridge tops. Attractive because of lower production costs and greater soil conservation. (Ex: Favorable with conventional farming for yields while lowering the costs of production.)
Winter wheat
Crop planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops in the winter. Wheat survives the winter and is ripe by the beginning of the summer. (Ex: winter wheat belt is Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma.)
Spring wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer. Winters are too harsh for winter wheat in this region. (Ex: grown in the Dakotas, Montana, and Saskatchewan, Canada.)
Reaper
Machine that cuts grain standing in a field. Permits large-scale wheat production in the U.S. and other MDCs. (Ex: McCormick's reaper invented in the 1830s.)
Thresh
To beat grain on the ground or tread on them barefoot. Performed to separate the husks from the seeds. (Ex: threshing rice to separate the seeds from the chaff.)
Sawah
Flooded rice field. Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia.
Paddy
Malay word for "wet rice". North Americans and Europeans usually mistake a paddy for a sawah. (Ex: Sawah-flooded rice field on which rice is grown. Paddy-the rice itself.)
Chaff
The husks of the rice. The heads are threshed to separate the chaff from the seeds.
Double cropping
Obtaining two harvests per year from one field. Land even more intensively used in party's of Asia. Alternate between wet rice in summer then dry crop in winter. (Ex: common in China, Taiwan)
Seed agriculture
The reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization. Originated in three hearths: Western India, northern China, and Ethiopia. (Ex: grain first domesticated)
Vegetative planting
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants; such as cutting and dividing roots. Originated in Southeast Asia, West Africa, and Northwest South America.)
Fallowing
To plow, harrow, and break up land without seeding to destroy weeds and conserve soil moisture. The land is left to fallow during time of it not being used in shifting cultivation.
Shifting cultivation
Farmers clear land for planting by burning vegetation and grow crops until nutrients in soil are depleted. Then the next area of land is cleared and the original land is left to fallow. (Ex: practiced in small villages in humid low latitude regions.)
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Farmers clear land by slashing vegetation and burning debris. Practiced in shifting cultivation. Ash will give the soil the needed nutrients.
Pastoral nomadism
Subsistence agriculture bashed on the herding of domesticated animals. Adapted to dry climates, usually North Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia.)
Prime agricultural land
Most productive farmland. U.S. has lost 500,000 acres of urban areas. (Ex: Californian agricultural land is being taken up by expanding cities like LA.)
Horticulture
Growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Horticulture and tree crops form the base of Mediterranean agriculture. (Ex: grapes, olives, ect.)
Capital intensive farming
Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large animals of agricultural goods. Very little human labor. (Ex: tractors on a farm, feedlots, meat processing companies.)
Labor intensive farming
Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to succeed. Little machinery and hand tools used. (Ex: found in LDCs, the Amish practice this.)
Feedlots
Places where livestock are concentrated in very small area and raised in hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing. Livestock is fattened by science and then slaughtered. (Ex: factory farming)
BT corn
Type of genetically modified organism. Resistant to certain herbicides and kills the insects that eat it. (Ex: GMO crop that is created in a lab.)
Extensive subsistence agriculture
Consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops/animals are used exclusively for the local/family consumption and on large areas of land. Subsistence agriculture on extensive land. (Ex: nomadic herding, shifting cultivation)
Vertical integration
Combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies. One company controls all the farming, processing, packaging, and marketing. (Ex: farm > processing > packaging > marketing - all owned by one company.)
Market gardening
Growing/farming items depending on distance from the nearest market. Close to market centers. (Ex organic fruit farms that are local and close to major cities.)
Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
Any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Source of genetically modified foods. (Ex: tomatoes that last longer and ripen faster.)
Agroecology
The study of ecological processes that operate in agricultural production system. (Ex: study of the process of shifting cultivation, capital intensive farming, etc.)
Heirloom varieties
Open-pollinated seeds you collect from one year will produce plants with most of the characteristics of the parent plant. An older version of a seed. (Ex: heirloom tomatoes-the organic spring tomato.)
Grass-fed beef
Cattle raised in pastures. Healthier to eat than farm cows because lower fat and higher in nutrients. (Ex: free range cattle that feed in pastures.)
Suitcase farmers
Grower of wheat or other crops who lives outside the community except during the plowing. Commutes to the farm when it is plowing or harvesting time.
Organics
Food produced by organic farming. Organic grown foods; organic agriculture, less machinery/chemicals used, healthier, more natural. (Ex: organic foods can be any food grown in organic farming: lettuce, tomatoes, strawberries, apples, garlic, onions, etc.)
Free range
Livestock kept in natural conditions, with freedom of movement. Livestock can roam the environment rather than stay in small cages, coops, or pens. (Ex: cattle that graze in pastures.)
Soil salinization
The increase in salt in the soil. Salt makes the soil infertile and unable to grow crops. (Ex: using potassium as fertilizer can result in soil salinization. Vegetation dies and soil degrades.)
Swidden
An area of land cleared for cultivation by slashing and burning. After vegetation is cleared the area is called the swidden. (Ex: used in shifting cultivation as the fertilized land. Left to fallow when swidden is no longer fertile.)
Downer cattle
A cow that cannot stand on its own. Downer cattle are prone to mad cow disease and are banned from being slaughtered for sale of meat. (Ex: cow that is injured or ill can be downed.)