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line segment

can be measured because it has 2 endpoints

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congruent

when segments have the same measure

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segment bisector

any segment, line, or plane that intersects a segment at its midpoint

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perpendicular

lines, segments, or rays that form right angles

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undefined terms

terms only explained using examples and descriptions

ex: point, line, plane

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line

made up of points and has no thickness or width

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collinear

points on the same line

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plane

flat surface made up of points

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coplanar

points that lie on the same plane

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space

a boundless, 3D set of all points

contains lines and planes

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precision

depends on the smallest unit available on the measuring tool

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between

for any 2 points A and B on a line, there is another point C between A and B

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constructions

methods of creating geometric figures without the benefit of measuring tools

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absolute error

the absolute value of the difference between the actual measure of an object and the allowable measure

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relative error

the ratio of the absolute error to the actual measure

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significant digits

represent the accuracy of a measurement

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midpoint

the point on the segment that divides the segment into 2 congruent segments

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degree

a unit of measure used in measuring angles and arcs

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opposite rays

if you choose a point on a line, that point determines exactly 2 rays

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angle

formed by 2 noncollinear rays that have a common endpoint

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sides

the rays of the angle

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vertex

the common endpoint

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exterior

outside an angle

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acute angle

less than 90 degrees

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obtuse angle

larger than 90 degrees

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angle bisector

a ray that divides an angle into 2 congruent angles

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adjacent angles

2 angles that lie in the same plane, have a common vertex and a common side, but no common interior points

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vertical angles

2 nonadjacent angles formed by 2 intersecting lines

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linear pair

a pair of adjacent angles with noncommon sides that are opposite rays

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complementary angles

2 angles with measures that have a sum of 90

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supplementary angles

2 angles with measures that have a sum of 180

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n-gon

a polygon with n sides

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regular polygon

a convex polygon in which all the sides are congruent and all the angles are congruent

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perimeter

the sum of the length of the sides of the polygon

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circumference

the distance around the circle

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area

the # of the square units needed to cover a surface

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polyhedron

a solid with all flar surfaces that enclose a single region of space

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face

each flat surface (polygon)

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edges

the line segments where the faces intersect

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prism

a polyhedron with 2 parallel congruent faces

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bases

2 parallel congruent faces

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regular prism

a prism with bases that are regular polygons

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pyramid

a polyhedron with all faces except for one intersecting at one vertex

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regular polyhedron

a polyhedron if all its faces are regular congruent polygon and all of the edges are congruent

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platonic solids

5 types of regular polyhedra

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cylinder

a solid with congruent circular bases in a pair of parallel

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cone

a circular base and a vertex

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sphere

a set of points in space that are a given distance from a given point

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surface area

the sum of the areas of each face of a solid

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volume

the measure of the amount of space the solid encloses

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orthographic drawing

the 2D views of the top, left, front, and right sides of an object

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net

a pattern for a 3D solid

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