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56 terms

H Geometry Ch.1

vocab
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line segment
can be measured because it has 2 endpoints
congruent
when segments have the same measure
segment bisector
any segment, line, or plane that intersects a segment at its midpoint
perpendicular
lines, segments, or rays that form right angles
undefined terms
terms only explained using examples and descriptions
ex: point, line, plane
point
a location
line
made up of points and has no thickness or width
collinear
points on the same line
plane
flat surface made up of points
coplanar
points that lie on the same plane
space
a boundless, 3D set of all points
contains lines and planes
precision
depends on the smallest unit available on the measuring tool
between
for any 2 points A and B on a line, there is another point C between A and B
constructions
methods of creating geometric figures without the benefit of measuring tools
absolute error
the absolute value of the difference between the actual measure of an object and the allowable measure
relative error
the ratio of the absolute error to the actual measure
significant digits
represent the accuracy of a measurement
midpoint
the point on the segment that divides the segment into 2 congruent segments
degree
a unit of measure used in measuring angles and arcs
ray
part of a line
opposite rays
if you choose a point on a line, that point determines exactly 2 rays
angle
formed by 2 noncollinear rays that have a common endpoint
sides
the rays of the angle
vertex
the common endpoint
interior
inside an angle
exterior
outside an angle
right angle
90 degrees
acute angle
less than 90 degrees
obtuse angle
larger than 90 degrees
angle bisector
a ray that divides an angle into 2 congruent angles
adjacent angles
2 angles that lie in the same plane, have a common vertex and a common side, but no common interior points
vertical angles
2 nonadjacent angles formed by 2 intersecting lines
linear pair
a pair of adjacent angles with noncommon sides that are opposite rays
complementary angles
2 angles with measures that have a sum of 90
supplementary angles
2 angles with measures that have a sum of 180
n-gon
a polygon with n sides
regular polygon
a convex polygon in which all the sides are congruent and all the angles are congruent
perimeter
the sum of the length of the sides of the polygon
circumference
the distance around the circle
area
the # of the square units needed to cover a surface
polyhedron
a solid with all flar surfaces that enclose a single region of space
face
each flat surface (polygon)
edges
the line segments where the faces intersect
prism
a polyhedron with 2 parallel congruent faces
bases
2 parallel congruent faces
regular prism
a prism with bases that are regular polygons
pyramid
a polyhedron with all faces except for one intersecting at one vertex
regular polyhedron
a polyhedron if all its faces are regular congruent polygon and all of the edges are congruent
platonic solids
5 types of regular polyhedra
cylinder
a solid with congruent circular bases in a pair of parallel
cone
a circular base and a vertex
sphere
a set of points in space that are a given distance from a given point
surface area
the sum of the areas of each face of a solid
volume
the measure of the amount of space the solid encloses
orthographic drawing
the 2D views of the top, left, front, and right sides of an object
net
a pattern for a 3D solid