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AP Biology Chapter 8
Terms in this set (28)
What are the locations of light reactions and dark reactions?
Light reactions are located in the thylakoids and dark reactions are located in the stroma.
What are C4 plants?
They make a 4 carbon compound to partially close the stomata and separates the carbon fixation from the calvin cycle. Ex- Corn or quick growing plants.
What are CAM plants?
They pen their stomata at night, incorporating CO2 into organic acids (PEP carboxylase). Stomata close during the day, and CO2 is released from organic acids (PEP carboxylase) and used in the Calvin cycle
What are the downsides to C4 and CAM plants?
They are not as efficient when doing photosynthesis and they waste more energy.
What are the differences between linear/noncyclic and nonlinear/cyclic electron flow?
Linear/noncyclic electron flow produces both NADPH and ATP by going through both of the photosystems while nonlinear/cyclic flow does not go through both of the photosystems and only produces ATP.
Why does nonlinear/cyclic electron flow?
Nonlinear/cyclic electron flow happens in order to produce bonus ATP.
What are the substrates and products of both light and dark reactions?
The substrates for light reactions are light and water and its products are ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The substrates for the dark reactions are ATP, NADPH, and CO2 and its products are sugar.
What are other names for light reactions?
Light dependent reaction.
What are other names for dark reactions?
Light independent reaction or the Calvin Cycle.
What is rubisco?
It is the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of carbon fixation.
What is photorespiration?
It is when rubisco adds O2 instead of CO2 in the Calvin cycle, producing a two-carbon compound and it decreases photosynthetic output by consuming ATP, O2, and organic fuel and releasing CO2 without producing any ATP or sugar. It may be an evolutionary relic because rubisco first evolved at a time when the atmosphere had far less O2 and more CO2. It also limits damaging products of light reactions that build up in the absence of the Calvin cycle.
What are the substrates and products of Photosystem II and Photosystem I?
The substrates of Photosystem II are light and water and its products are oxygen and electrons. The substrates of Photosystem I are light and electrons and its products are "excited electrons".
What role does oxygen production have in photosynthesis?
Oxygen is produced during Photosystem II during the light reaction.
What is the relationship between the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis?
The products of the light reactions are the substrates of the dark reactions which means without the occurrence of light reactions there are no dark reactions.
What wavelength of light in the figure is most effective and least effective in driving photosynthesis?
Red and Blue is the most effective for photosynthesis and green is the least effective for photosynthesis.
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
H20->NADPH->Calvin Cycle/Dark Reaction.
When does respiration in photosynthetic organisms happen?
All the time.
What is the difference between NADPH and NADP+?
The difference is the NADPH has hydrogen while NADP+ does not and the amount of electrons each one has differs.
What do dark reactions do to NADP+?
Dark Reactions regenerates NADP+.
How is photosynthesis similar in C4 plants and CAM plants?
In both cases, Rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.
Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to __________.
Oxidative Phosphorylation in Cellular Respiration.
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?
Removal of Electrons from Chlorophyll Molecules.
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with __________.
ATP and NADPH.
Which of the following does NOT occur during the Calvin cycle?
Release of Oxygen.
What is photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium?
Prokaryotes that does photosynthesis and the light reaction happens in the plasma membrane while the dark happens in the cytoplasm.
What is carbon fixation?
It is the initial incorporation of CO2 into organic material.
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?
Photosynthesis uses light energy to produce sugar and respiration uses the energy from the sugar to produce ATP.
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