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Ab Psych Test 2

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Why was MMPI-2 needed?
Original MMPI created over 50 years ago
Mike is going to try to look mentally ill. He takes MMPI-2. He most likely will
by caught by specialized scales on the test.
Psychological Assessment refers to
Procedures used to summarize a client's problem
Which is true about assessment and professional orientation?
focus of assessment will be largely determined by professional orientation of clicinian.
What was unique about Esteban
Assessment was done in both English and Spanish
What is one problem with actuarial data?
Profile of many subjects do noot fit profile types for which actuarial data are available.
Which is an objective test
MMPI-2
Five hour battery of test that includes listening to rhythmic beats presented by tape recorder and putting different shaped blocks into grooves while blindfolded?
Halstead-Reitan battery
True statement about Rorschach
Considerable amount of training is required to administer and score it correctly
Pretend that doctor is father as part of a psychosocial assessment
analogue studies (staged role playing)
Not one of the tree basic categories of stressors?
challenges
pituitary gland
releases hormones that regulate many bodily functions
during resistance stage of personality decompensation
coping mechanisms are permitting one to function, but signs of the stress may begin to be apparent
Psychoneuroimmunology refers to
examining effects of stressors on immune system
the fight or flight response
invovloces activation of the sympathetic nervous system
symptoms are to signs as ______ is to _______
subjective;objective
true statement about assessment
an adequate assessment should include as much info as possible to allow the clinician to determine how the individual is functioning now and to predict how she will respond to various forms of treatment
_______ involves achieving a stable state by changing
allostasis
beneficial features are ability to map ongoing pysc activities of the brain without injecting radioactive substances into patient's body
fMRI
short term crisis therapy
begins with assumption that affected individual was functioning well before crisis
Projective test that has been adapted for computer interpretation?
Rorschach
Dr. Hunter is studying depression. Any subject who continues to feel hopeless and sad for more than 3 weeks after a loss will be considered depressed. He is using...
dimensional
which would be used to reveal "dysrhythmia" in brain activity?
EEG
why is it important to have an appropriate classification of presenting problem
a.Formal diagnosis may be needed for insurance purposes
b.Recognition will aid in development of effective treatment plan
c.Determination of range of presenting symptoms needed to ensure proper placement in a treatment facility
What is not a reason to use rating scales in clinical observation and self-reports?
decrease objectivity
Limitation of MMPI-2
requires an individual to be literate
When would a clinician most likely use self-monitoring
to find out what situations are likely to illicit problematic behaviors
Whenever fill a need to drink, indicate what you were thinking, where you were, who you were with, and whether you had the drink.
self monitoring
not an example of defense oriented coping
finding a workable compromise
when POW's first return
their relief and job at being released often masks the trauma's effects
PTSD
may develop in recovery stage of disaster syndrome
Why is divorce still a potent stressor?
new problems and challenges usually emerge following a divorce
which demonstrate reliability?
when an IQ test is administered to the same person repeatedly, and results do not differ
Example of task oriented coping?
leaving a cheating spouse
disorders that begin by adolescence or early adulthood, persist for long periods of time and affect many areas of a person's life are listed on
Axis 2
"Combat Exhaustion" is known as _______ today.
PTSD; acute stres disorder
Damage to the pituitary gland would most likely lead to
hormonal imbalances
New perceptions and experiences tend to be worked into our existing schemas, even if the new information must be distorted to fit them. This process is...
assimiliation
Tracy and Kevin are both 3 months old. Tracy is highly active, easily irritated, and cries easily. Kevin is quiet, adapts easily to change, and seems fearless. These differences illustrate
differences in temperament
Why is classification a necessary first step in developing an understanding about abnormal behavior?
communication about abnormal behavior cannot be effective unless what is being discussed is clear
Research by Exner and others has show than the Rorshach
can be scored by computer, thereby increasing its reliability
Dr. White is doing research in which she must diagnose clients at a mental health clinic. Because diagnostic reliability is of great concern in research, she will most likely establish diagnoses by using
standardized structured interviews
Projective and objective are two types of _____________ tests
personality
The MMPI is
a structure approach to personality assessment
which approach to classification of abnormal behavior uses statistical criteria to differentiate between normal and abonoral
dimensional
a valid test
measures what it is supposed to measure
Dr. Kim is a psychologist who uses a number of tests to measure a person's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance to detect brain damage. She is using
neuropsychosocial assessment
two general categories of psychological tests used are
personality and intelligence
lifelong conditions are typically ound on
AXIS 2
false statement about brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorders
identifiable brain damage is often the cause of psychiatric disorders
A clinical research subject is given a beeper that produces a soft tone at unexpected intervals. This assessment tool measures
thoughts and feelings in natural settings
when psychologists say that a person shows resilience it means
the person can successfully adapt and survive in threatening circumstances
normal human cells have
22 autosomal chromosome pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes
which of the following is an unstructured approach to studying personality
the TAT
which of the following is an example of a symptom
the client reported hearing voices
Which of the following would best address recent criticism of the TAT
use more modern pictures
Dr.Smith believes that a decrease in frontal lobe function underlies cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. He has hypothesized that effective drug therapy serves to selectively increase metabolic activity in this part of the brain. Which of the following is Dr. Smith most likely to use to test this hypothesis?
positron emission tomography (PET) scans
Which is most commonly used in research, as poopsed to as a tool for clinical diagnosis
fMRI; EEG; CAT scan; PET scan
the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) has been used to assess all of the following except
intelligence
All of the following are physical conditions that may produce behavioral symptoms that mimic psychological conditions except
somatoform disorders
which of the following statements about reliabillity and validity is true?
valid tests are usually reliable
Which of the following most accureately describes notion of different viewpoints of abnormal behavior
each viewpoint offers its own expanation of abnormal behavior
if a psychological test is standardized it means the clinician can
compare the individuals responses to those of other comparable people
a psychosocial assessment typically bengins with
an interview
cognitive behavioral psychologists believe that abnormal begavior
results from distored thing and information processing
which of the following is not a culture bound syndrome
hoopa
in which of the following circumstances would a psychosocial assessment clearly need to be used
ever since the divorce, James has been sleeping less and less
Dr. Spock, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. Which of the following treatments is he most likely to suggest for Julia's current state of depression?
a combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs
Jane has been diagnosed with shizotypal personality disorder. Jane's distorted view of the world, however, does not prevent her from working and living a relatively normal life. Which of the following terms best describes Jane's condition?
chronic
The disorders first recognized as having biological bases are best characterized as disorders that
involved significant damage to brain tissue
Joanne says that she cannot say no to her intrusive mother. Her therapist has her pretend to engage in such an interaction to assess how weak Joanne's assertiveness skills really are. This illustrates the use of
role playing
during an assessment interview, Dr. Poole noted that Jane's boss at work was harassing her. On which of the five axes of the DSM would this information be noted?
Axis 4
Psychologica test
are dependent on the clinician who interprets them
which of the following is an unstructed approach to studying personality
the TAT
neuropsychological test
use the measurement of performance on perceptual-motor tasks to give clues about impairment after brain injury
one limitation of the MMPI-2 is that it
requires a clinical interview as a supplement to the test itself
what role does the social context play in assessment
an evaluation of the environment in which the client lives is necessary in order to understand the demands he faces, as well as the supports that are present.
all of the following involve psychological disturbances that occur in response to an identifiable experience except
depression
after the Northridge earthquake in Southern California, during which part of a heavily traveled freeway collapsed, many people noted that it was lucky that this tragedy occurred on a holiday as there were few people on the road that early Monday morning. Does this "it could have been worse" sentiment moderate the effects of this natural disaster?
yes, finding the benefit such as this has been shown to aid in adapting to such stressors
what is the difference between a stressor and a crisis
while all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises
an individual with a high stress tolerance
can function well in the face of a high level stress
which of the following is considered to be the most reliable life event approach
the life event and difficulty schedule
Under what circumstances is a structures interview most likely to be used
when consistent information is needed for research purposes
which category of adjustive demands (stressors) would obstacles like prejudice and discrimination be placed it
frustrations
since it was first published, the DSM has
become more objective
it is belived that the incidence of combat exhaustion during WW2 has been underestimated because
many men were trateed in the field and never formally diagnosed
what is no a key factor in a stressor more serious
its a type or category
A person comes to a mental health professional with a certain complaint. The professional attempts to understand the nature and extent of the problem. This process is called
assessment
The Life Events and Difficulty Schedule
allows the rater to consider the person's unique circumstances
The fMRI technique cannot currently be used as a diagnostic tool. This is because
it is very difficult to interpret the results
What is the difference between a stressor and a crisis?
While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.
Disorders that begin by adolescence or early adulthood, persist for long periods of time, and affect many areas of a person's life are listed on
axis 2
Which of the following is a drawback of a structured interview?
They may include questions about areas that are of no concern to the patient.
Which approach to the classification of abnormal behavior uses statistical criteria to differentiate between normal and abnormal?
Dimensional
Which is not a stressor linked to immunosuppression, according to the text?
vacation
The term "crisis" refers to
any time when a stressful situation exceeds one's ability to cope.
Why is there such a high likelihood of long-lasting psychological problems resulting from active combat experiences?
Combat situations present highly stressful situations for which there may be no truly effective coping mechanisms.
At very high levels of stress
personality may play a role in decreasing vulnerability to stress.
Which of the following would be an example of a projective technique?
a child is asked to draw her family
Which is not an individual risk factor for developing PTSD?
believing that thier symptoms are a sign of personal strength
While the DSM is designed to be a categorical classification scheme,
the existing criteria tend to lead to a prototypal approach
the empirical keying approach to making a test like the MMPI involves
picking items that differentiate between different groups, no subjective judgment is needed
which is not a criticism of projective tests
client responses are limited
computers are excellent devices for storing info on large numbers of people's characteristics and test score patterns...
actuarial procedures
what would determine whether the WISC-III or the WAIS-III is used to test intelligence?
the age of the client
one advantage of the MRI over the CAT scan is that the MRI
provides bettern differentiation and clarity
which statement regarding assessment is true?
should include as much info as possible to allow clinician to determine how individual is functioning now, and to predict how she will respond to various forms of treatment
MMPI-2 Computer based report with Esteban was typical of such reports b/c
the report provided diagnostic and treatment considerations
MMPI is
structured approach to personality assessment
stress-inoculation training
involves learning new ways to think about an anticipated threat, and then applying these techniques to several different types of threats
as election approaches, public has come to accept that they will be selecting the lesser of two evils..
double avoidance
significant drawback of the use of medication for PTSD is
it can actually serve as a reinforce for one of the major symptoms of PTSD bc it can allow a person to avoid the feelings associated with the trauma
which would likely be a source of eustress
graduating from high school
ego-defense mechanisms
become problematic when they are used excessively
which is a criticism of life event scales
peoples' moods can have an impact on their ratings of stress
which would be expected during first phase of personality decompensation
Julia struggled to control her emotions
which Axes are rarely used in most clinical settings
axes 4 and 5
which is an assumption of categorical approach
each disorder has unique symptoms
research on those who experienced accident at 3 mile island has demonstrated
physical indices of high stress may be present for an extended period of time following a trauma
pschological assessment reders to the
procedures used to summarize a client's problem
not an example of defense-oriented coping
finding a workable compromise
which category of adjustive demands (stressors) would obstacles like prejudice and discrimination be placed in?
frustrations
what does it mean if Carol scores high on the Schizophrenia scale of the MMPI?
Carol's answers were comparable to those given by a group of schizophrenics.
the aim of a projective test is to
asses the way a patient perceives ambiguous stimuli
Danielle is having problems with drinking. She goes to a psychologist who gives her a form to fill out. It has a list of statements about drinking and problems associated with drinking. She is to rate each item between 1 and 3- 1 meaning it is not a problem for her, 3 meaning it is a very big problem and 2 is in between. This is an example of
rating scale
unlke the medical practitioner, the mental health professional's assessment process
rarely has "lab work" that can confirm an initial impression
the DSM acknowledges that
a DSM diagnosis is on the first step, much more is needed to determine treatement
intelligence and personality test can best be described as
indirect means of assessing psychological characteristics
chad really wants to go to a party on Friday because he knows the person who he is very interested will be there and he may be able to get a date. Then a person Chad is somewhat interested in asks him out for Friday. This is an example of
double approach conflict
which of the following will lower a soldiers risk of developing PTSD
believing strongly in the goals of conflict
which of the following would be an example of direct therapeutic exposure?
mandy visited the accident site
estimates of the prevalence of PTSD
demonstrates that is is more commonly seen in women
eustress is
a response to a happy life event
according to the text, the term stress will be used to refer to
the effects of stressors
the psychotropic medications used in the treatment of PTSD
treat the symptoms the client is experiencing
Which of the following would be used to reveal a dysrhythmia in brain activity?
CAT scan
the general adaptation syndrome is
a model that helps explain the course of biological decompensation under excessive stress
i often find that when I am ill, I am not able to cope effectively with the normal hassles of life. I find myself becoming irritated by things that I would usually be able to ignore. Which of the following would explain this phenomenon?
when using resources to deal with one stressor, the ability to tolerate additional stressors may be compromised
a person comes to a mental health professional with a certain complaint. the professional tries to understand the nature and extent of the problem. this porcess is called.
assessment
megan's boyfriend suddenly broke up with her. Megan spends most evenings crying. She calls her friends over and over to talk about the relationship and the break-up, to the point that her friends are beginning to dread talking to her. Megan is
using a defense oriented response to stress
one of the problems with actuarial data for an instrument like the MMPI is that
the profiles of many subjects fo not fit the profile types for which actuarial data are available
coping strategies are
efforts to dal with stress
the social readjustment rating scale
is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time
which of the following will lessen the impact of stress on a person
positive social and family relationships
the development of new methods of coping
may be an outcome of a crisis
for which of the following would the use of stress-innoculation training be most effective?
preparing for chemotherapy
Ed has suffered a head injury in a car accident. He is referred to a psychologist to see what types of impairment now exist and to get some suggestions for treatment. The best assessment strategy would be
neuropsychological tests
what role does social context play in assessment
an evaluation of the environment in which the client lives is necessary in order to understand the demands she faces, as well as the supports that are present.
the stress glucocorticoid that is produced in humans is called
cortisol
acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when
the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks
PTSD
symptoms vary considerably depending on the characteristics of the trauma and the victim.
which of the following best illustrates high reliability
two interviewers diagnose the same disorder after talking to the same client
which of the following is not considered a life change
being diabetic
why are airplane crashes typically more traumatic for those involved than natural disasters
the victimes are likely to be far from home
despite all the criticisms of the use of life stress scales
finding that life change produces stress has been supporte by other work
shanna foes to Dr. henderson fora first interview. He diagnosis her with a depressive disorder. She then goes to Dr. Smithson, because her friend recommended her. Dr. Smithson diagnoses Shanna with an anxiety disorder. This demonstrates a problem with
reliability
what is risk factor
a variable that increases the risk of a specific negative outcome
all of the following statements are true except
the response an individual will have to a stressor can be readily predicted
despite the many barriers to effectively researching the effectiveness of disaster resposnse, it has been found that
cognitive therapy reduces the PTSD symptoms of the majority of those who are treated
feelings of control over stressors
can make a difference even for victimes of torture - if the person feels he or she has some control her or she tends to be less affected by the sressor over the long term
one criticism of diagnositc labels is that
they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person' perception of themselves in negative ways
the reliability of the assessment interview may be enhanced by the use of
rating scales
following a disaster, debriefing sessions
provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns
who is most likely to get a cold
those with negative events and a highly diverse social network
psychoneuroimmunology is
the interaction between the nervous system and the immune system
while neurological assessment procedures evaluate the brain's physical properties, neuropsychological assessment focuses on
client performance
which of the following is the biological cascade that is activated with prolonged stress
the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
in DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors
are specified on Axis IV
selye
recognized that both happy and sade life events can be sources of stress
in the final phase of stress-innoculation training
newly acquired skills are applied
the impact of torture
can vary depending on if the torture was perceived as uncontrollable or not
if a diagnosis is made by comparing subjects to a "model" of an illness, which type of classification scheme is being used?
prototypical
which cytokine has been associated with depression and caring for family members with Alheizeimer's disease?
Interleukin-6
who is likely to have the most severe stress
josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news
in what way do the responses of soldiers who were most physically wounded differ from the nonwounded in developing combat stress
the wounded showed less anxiety
which of the following statements about combat and PTSD is true
a wound may act to decrease the anxiety experienced while in combat
the need for rapport between a clinician and a client means
the client must feel comfortable with the clinician and the assessment
Arielle was in a terrible car accident where several people were killed. a few weeks later she has begun to talk about what happened. she tells the story to anyone who will listen. this seems to be
a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience
a clinical psychologist notes that a client wears his clothes inside out, that his hair is matted, and there is dirt under his fingernails. This information is known as
clinical observation
which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation
preparing for the stressor
psychological assessment refers to the
procedures used to summarize a client's problem
which of the following is a type of test that tries to find ways in which a person's personality and past experiences cause them to understand and perceive their world
projective tests
stress-innoculation training
is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of an anticipated threat
b-cells are
cells that produce antibodies
a risk factor is
something in a person's history that makes him or her more vulnerable to stress
having a history of psychological problems before going into combat
sometimes increases risk of PTSD, but may lowerit beacuse the person is acutally used to anxiety and copes automatically
several clinicians look at the TAT results of a hospitalized patient. The patient described the characters on the card as not speaking to each other. One clinician says this means the patient has a lot of unresolved anger. Another says it means the patient has a lot of social anxiety. The third says he thinks it means the patient is uninterested in people and prefers to be alone. This demonstrates the following problem with the TAT:
scoring and interpretation is very subjective
which of the following makes it possible to see all but the most minute abnormalities of brain structure
MRI
which of the following is not a factor to keep in mind when evaluating test results
the theoretical orientation of teh clinician
a behaviorally oriented clinician tells her alcohol dependent client: "Here is a checklist I want you to fill out each day. Whenever you feel you need a drink, you should indicate what you were thinking, where you were, who you were with, and whether you went ahead and drank." What procedure is the clinician using?
self monitoring
the text presented the case of Esteban, a twenty-one-year-old student from Colombia. Some psychologists believe that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is particularly appropriate for cases like Esteban's because the Rorschach
is not culture bound
the pituitary gland
releases hormones that regulate many bodily functions