How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

177 terms

Organizational Behavior 1-4

STUDY
PLAY
MBA students may get by with
Technical and quantitative skills the first couple of years out of school but soon, leadership and communications skills come to the forefront in distinguising the managers whose careers really take off.
Outstanding employees are always
In short supply.
Managers
Get things done through other people they make decisions, allocate resources and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Called administrators in not-for-profit organizations.
Organization
Coordinated social united, composed of two or more people, that functions on a reltively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Henri Fayol
French industrialist wrote that all managers perform five management functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. These have been condensed into four: planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
Planning Function
Encompasses defining an organization's goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Increases the most as lower-level managers move to mid-level managers.
Organizaton Function
Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.
Leading Function
Managers motivate employees, direct their activities, select the most effective communicaton channels or resolve conflicts among members, they're engaging in leading.
Controlling Function
Monitoring, comparing, and potential correcting.
Henry Mintzberg
MIT graduate in the 1960's took on a careful study of five executives to dtermine what they did on their jobs. he concluded that managers perform highly interrelated roles or sets of behaviors. (1) Interpersonal (2) informational (3) decisional.
Interpersonal Roles
Managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. All managers have a leadership role which includes hiring, training, motivating, disciplining employees.
Informational Roles
All managers to some degree, collect information from outside organizations and institutions, typically by scanning the news media and talking with other people to learn of changes in the public's tastes what competitors may be planning and the like.
Decisional Roles
Four roles that require making choices 1) entrepreneur role, managers inititate and oversee new projects that will improve their organizations' performance. 2) disturbance handlers, managers take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems. 3) Resource allocators - human, physical and monetary 4) Negotiator role which they discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit.
Technical Skills
The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.
Human Skills
The ability to understand, communicate with, motivate and support other people both individually and in groups.
Conceptual Skills
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Identify problems, develop alternative solutions to correct those problems, evalutae those alternative solutions and select the best one. The ability to integrate new ideas with existing processes and innovate on the job are also crucial conceptual skills for today's managers.
Fred Luthans
Studied more than 450 managers. The average manager spend 32 percent of his time in traditional management activities, 29 percent communicating, 20 percent in human resource management activitries and 19 percent networking. Successful managers - networking made the largest relative contribution. Effective managers - communication made the largest relative contribution and networking the least.
Promotions
Based more on networking and political skills than performance.
Managers must develop their
people skills to be effective and successful.
Organizational behavior
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations.
Systematic Study
Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence.
EBM
Evidence-based management complements systematic study by basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific eveidence.
The promise of OB
To use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience.
The study of OB is built
upon a number of behavioral disciplines, mainly psychology - individual level, - Group study in social psychology, sociology and anthropology.
Psychology
seeks to measure and sometimes change the behavior of humans. The study of learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision-making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, employee-selection techniques, work desin and job stress.
Social pysychology
People's influence on one another. How to implement change.
Sociology
Studies people in relationship to their social environment or culture. Formal organization theory and structure, power, conflict.
Anthropology
Study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Differences in fundamental valuyes, attitudes and behaviors between countries.
OB concepts must reflect
situational, or contingency conditions. IT ALL DEPENDS
The typical employee
is getting older; more women and people of color are in the workplace; coporate downsizing and heavy use of temporary workers are severing the bonds of loyalty that tied many employees to their employers; and global competition requires employees to become mroe flecible and cope with rapid change.
To work effectivity with people from different cultures
You need to understand how their culture, geography and religion have shaped them and how to adapt your mangement style to their differences.
Managers face the difficult task of
balancing the interest of their organization with their responsibilties to the communtiies in which they operate.
Worforce Diversity
Addresses differences among people within given countries. Women, men; many racial and ethnic groups; individiaul with a variety of pysical or psychological abililities, age sexual orientation.
The most significant change in the U.S. workforce
The number of female workers. In 1950 only 29.6%, in 2008 46.5% of women are working.
55 and older group
currently 13% of the labor force will increase to 20% by 2014.
The majority of employess in industrial nations
Work in service jobs. 80% of the US workers 73% in Australia 69% United Kingdom and Germany and Japan
Many organizations fail
Because its employees failed to please customers.
Successful organizations must foster
Innovations and master the art of change. Managers need to stimulate their employees creativity and tolerance for change.
Today's work climate
Best characterized as temporary. Workers must continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new job requirements.
The creations of a global organizations means
The world never sleeps. It is difficult to feel like you can ever get away from the office.
Employees want jobs that
Give them flexibility to manage their work and home life. Flexibility is more important to employees than job security.
Growth Area in OB
Positive organizational scholarship which studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential. Engagement, hope, optimism and resilience in the face of strain.
Reflected Best-Self
Positive organizational scholars have studed this concept asking employees to think about when they were at their personal best in order to understand how to exploit their strengths.
Determining the ethically correct way to behave
Is especially difficult in a global economy because different cultures have different perspectives on certain ethical issues.
Statistics can
Lie! Evidence is crucial to making effective management decisions but realize that evidence is created. Ask questions not only about the data but also about how it was gathered. Consider other sources. The questions mind has a way of getting to the bottom of things. Evidence is vary valuable that is why it is often manipulated.
Dependent variable
is the key factor that you want to explain or predict and that is affected by some other factor.
Productivity
Achieves its goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost. Requires both effectiveness and efficiency.
A clear chain of cause and effect
Runs from employee attitudes and behavior to customer attitudes and behavior to a service organizations productivity.
Absenteeism
The failure to report to work is a huge cost. $789 per year per employee. It may be better for the organization if an ill or fatigued employee does not report to work.
Turnover
Voluntary or involuntary permanent withdrawl from an organization. To replace a system analyst $34,000 to replace a sales clerk $10,000.
Organizations have the responsibility
To provide employees with jobs that are challenging and intrinsically rewarding.
Independent variable
The presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable. Individuals characteristics, Group-level variables, Organization system-level variables.
Effective Diversity Management
Increases an organization's access to the widest possible pool of skills, abilities and ideas.
Most significant concern of Human Resources
The aging of the workforce. The loss of skills resulting from retirement of many baby boomers, increased medical costs due to an aging workforce and many employees needs to care for elderly relatives tropped the list of issues.
Surface Level Diversity
Perception of stereotypes and assumptions.
Deep-Level Diversity
Personality and values.
Discriminate
To note a difference between things. Whether intentional or not, discrimination can lead to serious negative consequences for employers, includeing reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, conflicts and increased turnover.
Incivility
Disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting the person, or ignoring his or her opinions.
Biographical characteristics
Age, gender, race, disability and length of service are some of the most obvious ways employees differ.
This textbook is essentially concerned with
Finding and analyzing the variables that affect employee productivitiy, absence, turnover, deviance, citizenshjip and satisfaction.
The relationship between
Age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for at least three reasons 1) Belief is widespread that job performance declines with increaseing age. Regardless if this is true, many people believe it and act on it. 2) Many Employers recognize that older workers represent a huge potential pool of quality applicants. 3) U.S. legitation that for all intents and purposes outlaws mandatory retirement. Most U.S. workers today no longer have to retire at age 70.
In general older employees
Are less likely to quit. They have more unavoidable absenteeism and less avoidable absenteeism. The evidence shows that age and decline in job performance are not related.
Job satisfaction with older employees
increases with professional careers and falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises agin in the later years.
Few issues inititate more debates and
Misconceptions and unsupported opinions than whether women perform as well on jobs as men do. Evidence shows that there is no significant difference in job productivity between men and women. Gender still affects our perceptions.
Women who succeed in traditionally male domains are perceived as
Less likable, more hostile and less desirable as supervisors.
Women have higher
Turnover rate due to child responsibilities and home responsibilities.
Parents regardless of gender
Were rated lower in job committment, achievement striving, and dependability that individuals without children, but mothers were rated especially low in competence.
The issue of racial differences
In general mental ability tests continues to be hotly debated.
African-Americans
Fare worse than Whites in employement decisions. They receive lower ratings in employment interviews receive lower job performance ratings and are paid less and are promoted less frequently. Yet there are not statistically significant difference between African Americans and Whites in observed absences rates, appliedf socail skills at work or accident rates.
With the passage of the Americans with disablilties Act in 1990
The representation of individuals with disabilties in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased.
The most controversial aspects of the Americans with Disabilities Act
Is the provision that requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilties. Most people have very strong biases against those with mental illnesses, who are therefore reluctant to disclose this information to employers. Many who do, report negative consequences. Employability ratings for individuals with mental illnesses were especially low.
Recent evidence demonstrates
A positive relationship between seniority and job productivity. So tenure, expressed as work experience appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity.
The greatest religious diversity issue in the US today
Revolves around Islam. There are nearly two million Muslims in the US. 4 out of 10 US adults admit they harbor negative feelings or prejudices toward US Muslims and 52 percent believe US Muslims are not repectful of women.
Religious discrimination claims have been
A growing source of discrimination claims in the US.
Employers differ widely
In their treatment of sexual orientation. Federal Law does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation thought many States and Municipalities do.
Contrary to what we were taught in grade school
We were not all created edqual in our abilities. Most people are to the left or to the right of the median on some normally distributed ability curve.
Abilities are essentially made up of
Two sets of factors: intellectual and physical.
Intellectural abilities are
Abilities needed to perform mental activities, thinking, reasoning and problem solving. Most societies place a high value on intelligence and for good reason. Smart people generally earn more money and attain higher levels of education. They are more likely to emerge as leaders of groups.
GMA - General Mental Ability
The more complex a job in terms of information-processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform succcessfully.
Wonderlic Personnel Test
Widely used intelligence test in hiring.
Dimensions of Intellectual Ability
Number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning spatial visualization, memory.
Cultural Intelligence
The ability to relate well to people from different cultures. Being able to recognize, adjust, and correct our typical way of thinking and recognize alternative cultural points of view does require cognitive resource so some aspect of general mental ability likely affects cultural intelligence.
The correlation between job satisfaction and intelligence
Is about zero. Research suggest that althought intelligent people perform better and tend to have more interesting jobs, they are also more critical and evaluating their job conditions. Thus, smart people have it better, but they also expect more.
Qualifications are far more important
In determining who gets hired than demographic characteristics
Deep Level diversity factors
Appear to be more important in shaping people's reactions to one another than surface level characteristics.
Stores that fostered a positive
Diversity climate were able to capitalize on their diverse workforce and make more money.
Groups of individuals with different types of expertise and education
Are more effective than homogeneous groups. However, a group made entirely of assertive people who want to be in charge, or a group whose members all prefer to follow the lead of others, will be less effective than a group that mixes leadeers and followers.
Effective comprehensive workforce programs that encourage diversity
1) They teach managers about the legal framework of equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people. 2) They teach managers how a diverse workforce will be able to better serve a diverse market of customers and clients. 3) they foster personal development practicies and bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how difference in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone.
United States specifically forbids
Specific diversity targets and quotas for achieving affirmative action goals.
Ability directly influences
an employee's level of performance.
Main Components of Attitudes
Cognitive - description of a belief in the way things are. "My pay is low". Affective - Emotional or feeling segment. I am angry about how I am paid. Behavorial describes an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. "I'm going to look for another job that pays better".
Cognitive dissonance
Any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
General Attitudes
Best Predict general behaviors.
You are more likely to remember attitudes
You frequently express.
Most Employees find
Co-workers among the most satisfying aspects of their job.
If you are dissatisfied with a co-worker
First try the direct but conciliatory approach. 2) Resist the urge to play tit for tat. 3) If you cannot solve the problem, ignore it. 4) Do not go to management unless you have a positive solution or you feel your safety or career is threatened.
Job Satisfaction.
What people mean when they speak of employee attitudes.
Job involvement
Measures the degree to which people identify psychologiacally with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth.
Psychological Empowerment
Employees beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job and their perceived autonomy.
Affective Commitment
An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.
Continuance Commitment
The perceived economic value of remaining with an organization. A study showed that continuance commitment really is a commitment at all it describes an employee tethered to an employer simply because there is not anything better available.
Normative Commitment
An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.
POS - Perceived Organizational Support.
The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.
Employee Engagement
An individual's involvement with satisfaction and enthusiasm for the works she does. Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work and feel a deep connection to their company; disengaged employees have essentially checked out putting in the time but not the energy or attention into their work.
Three highest aspects of job satisfaction
1) Workplace physical conditions 2) Coworkers 3) Flexibility of work hours.
Three lowest aspects of job satisfaction
Retirement plan, pay, on the job stress
Job Satisfaction and Overall Happiness
Once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living (U.S. 40,000) the relationship between pay and job satisfaction virtually disappears.
Core Self-evaluations
People who believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations.
Consequences of dissatisfaction.
1) Exit response - directs behavior toward leaving the organization including looking for a new position as well as resigning. 2) Voice response - includes actively and constructively attemp0ting to improve conditions including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors and undertaking some forms of union activity. 3) Loyalty - response means passively but optimistical;ly waiting for conditions to improve including speaking up for the organization. 4) Neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteesim and lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate.
Organizations with more satisfied employees
Tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees.
OCB - Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Evidence suggests job satisfaction is moderately correlated. Fairness perceptions help explain the relationship. Those who feel their co-workers support them are more likely to engage in helpful behaviors.
Job satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
Low employee morale was a major factor undermining customer satisfaction.
Workplace Deviance
Workers who do not like their jobs - get even by surfing the net, quitting, absenteeism.
Managers
Often over estimate job satisfaction amony employees. Regular surveys can reduce gaps between what managers think employees feel and what they really feel.
Most Important things managers can do to raise employee satisfaction is
Make the work challenging and interesting. Challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions and supportive collegues all add to job satisfaction. High pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.
Affect
A generic term that covers a broad range of feelings people experience including both emotions and moods.
Emotions
Intense feelings directed at someone or something. If someone is rude to you you will feel angry for a short time. Reactions to a person or an event. Emotions can turn into moods when you lose focus on the event or object that started the feeling. Specific and numerous in nature. Action oriented in nature.
Moods
Less intense than emotions and often lack contextual stimulus. If you are in a bad mood you can feel bad for several hours. Directed at a person or an event. Cause is often general and unclear. last longer than emotions. More general two main dimensions, positive affect and negative affect. Cognitive in nature.
Emotions cannot
be neutral. Being neutral is being nonemotional.
High Negative Affect
Tense, Nervous stressed, upset.
Low Positive Affect
Sad, depressed, bored, fatigued.
High Positive affect
Alert, excited, elated happy
Low Negative Affect
Content, Serene, Relaxed, Calm
Emotions are
Critical to rational thinking. Emotions provide important information about how we understand the world around us.
Affect Intensity
is how strongly we we experience emotions.
Timing
We are generally in better moods from mid-morning onward and later in the weeki.
Weather
Contrary to the prevailing cultural view, data indicates that people do not report a better mood on bright and sunny days or worse mood on dark and rainy days.
Illusory correlation
People associate two events what in reality have no connection.
Stress
Negatively affects our mood. The effects build over time.
Social Activities
Activities that are physical, informal or epicurean (eating with others) are more strongly associated with increases in positive mood thanj events that are formal (attending a meeting) or sedentary (watching TV with friends)
Sleep
Quality affects mood. Can impair decision making and makes it difficult to control emotions - irritable, less alert.
People
Can't accurately forecast their own emotions.
Exercise
Enhances peoples positive mood.
Age
As we get older we experience fewer negative emotions. Older workers bring exdperience, judgment, a strong work ethic and commitment to quality. Measureable productivity.
Gender - women
Are more emotional and expressive than men. They experience emotions more intensely, and tend to hold onto emotions longer than men and they display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions, except anger.. Gender does not really matter as to the job.
Emotional Labor
An employee's expresssion of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transations at work. The market does not financially reward emotional labor.
Emotional Dissonance
Employees have to project one emotion while feeling another.
Felt Emotions
Actual emotions
Displayed Emotions
Those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job.
Surface acting
Hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules. Deals with displayed emotions.
Deep acting
We are tring to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules Deals with felt Emotions
AET - Effective events theory
Demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work, and this reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction.
Emotional Intelligence
A persons ability to 1) be self-aware 2) detect emotions in others 3) manage emotional cues and information.; EI not IQ characterized high performers. Overall EI correlated moderately with job performance.
Emotional Intelligence
Is biologically based. EI is neurologically based in a way that is unrelated to standard measures of intelligence.
Emotional Contagion
Employees emotions can transfer to the customer.
40% of all employees
Have been in an office romance. Most people hesitate to initiate one. 1) 3/4ths of organizations have no policies overning worplace romances. Make sure you know the rules. 2) Be particularly cautious about "dating up" and "dating down". 3) Avoid attempting to hide the romance. 4) If you are single ... it may be wise to consider an office romance because many individuals say that is how they met their spouse.
More men than women
would consider dating a coworker.
The degree to which
People experience emotions vary across cultures. In China poeple report experienceing few positive and negative emotions.
The acceptable norms of expressing emotions
Differ across cultures. US and Middle East recognize a smile as indicating happiness but in the Middle East a smile is more likely to be seen as a sign of sexual attraction, so women have learned not to smile at mean. In the US there is a bias against expressing emotions, especially intense negatiges ones.French retail clerks are infamous for being surly toward customers. Serious German shoppers have reportedly been turned off by friendly greeters and helpful staff. Japanese view frequent smiling to lack of intelligence.
Positive emotions and moods have proven
to effect decision making and creativitiy. You can't divorce emotions from the workplace because you can't divorce emotions from people.
Skilled Managers have
Lower turnover of quality employees, higher quality applications for recruitment and better financial performance.
Management Activities
Make decisions, allocate resources and direct activities of others to attain goals.
Management Functions
Plan, Organize, Lead and Control
Mintzberg Managerial roles
Separated into three groups: Interpersonal, Informational and Decisional
Interpersonal
Figurehead - Symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine dutues of a legal or social nature. Leader - Responsible for the motivation and direction of employees Liaison - Maintains a network of outside contracts who provide favors and information.
Informational
Monitor - Serves as nerve center of internal and external infor. Disseminator - Transmit info. freceived from Outsiders to employees. Spokesperson - Transmits info. to outsiders on organizations plans, policides, actions and results. Serves as expert on organizations industry.
Decisional
Entrepreneur - Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change. Disturbance handler - responsible for corrective action. Resource allocator - Makes or approves significant organizational decisions. Negotiator - Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations.
Essential management skills
Technical skills - The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills - The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people both individually and in groups. Conceptual skills - The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
Organizational Behavior
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying usch knowledge towrad improvinmg an organizations' effectiveness.
EBM Evidence Based management
Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence. Thinking like a scientist - Post a mangerial questions, search for best available evidence and apply relevant info. to the case.
Intuition
Gut feelings, individual observation and common sense.
Systematic Study
Looks at relationships, scientific evidence and predicts behaviors.
People in organizations are becoming more
Heterogeneously demographically. Embracing diversity, changing US demographics, changing management philosophy and recognizing and responding to differences.
A model
Abstractions of reality, a simplified representation of some real world phenomenon. The model has three levels; Organization, group and individual.
Tenure
People with job tenure are more productive and absent less frequetnly, have lower turnover and more satisfied. Inverse relationship when tenure goes up absenteeism goes down when satisfaction goes up turnover goes down.
Religion
May impact the workplace in areas of dress, grooming and scheduling. Not much effect.
Sexual Orientation
Domestic partner benefits are important considerations. Not much overall effect.
Intellectual Abilities
General Mental Ability measures overall intelligence. Wonderlic Personnel Test is a quick measure of intelligence for recruitment screening. No correclation between intelligence and job satisfaction. Other things are more important to job satisfaction.;
Your best security
Your resume.
Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction
Active - Exit or Sound Voice Passive - Neglect and allow coniditions to worsen or loyalty - passively waiting for coniditon to improve.
MBWA
Management by walking around. Interace with employees and ask quetions.
Main reason people leave an organization.
Relationship with their supervisor.
Pay is not enough
Make the job challenging and interesting.
Leaders
Hook into people's emotions.
People want to be thought of as a person
Not just a factor of production.
Good Leaders
Build people.
AET - Affective Events Theory
An event that triggers emotional reactions.