French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Led a small militia from Virginia to stop work on French Fort Duquesne. Was forced to surrender. (July 3rd, 1754)
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
British government called for representatives from several colonies to meet in Albany, NY, to provide for an intercolonial government to recruit troops and collect taxes. (1754)
Set a precedent for other revolutionary meetings.
Peace of Paris (1763)
Peace treaty signed to end the French and Indian War (1763)
Britain gained French Canada and Spanish Florida.
France gave Spain its western territory.
Britian had exercised little direct control over the colonies and did not enforce its navigation laws
This changed after the French and Indian War
Dominant political party in Parliament who wanted to solve England's financial problems through the colonies
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
(1763) Indian chief Pontiac led a major attack against the colonies. The British did not rely on colonial forces, but instead sent their army to deal with the rebellion
Proclamation Act of 1763
Prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachain Mountains. British hoped it would prevent violence between Native Americans and colonists.
The colonists were angry and disobeyed the law, moving to the west of the mountains in large numbers (1763)
Quartering Act (1765)
Required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers in the colonies
Stamp Act (1765)
Required that revenue stamps be placed on almost all printed paper. First direct tax paid by the people.
Boycotts were effective in repealing this Act.
Young Virginian lawyer who coined the phrase "No taxation without representation" in his speech to the House of Burgesses
Stamp Act Congress
Representatives from nine colonies met in NY (1765), and decided that only their own elected representatives had the power to approve taxes
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Secret society who intimidated tax agents; tarred and feathered some tax collectors
Declaratory Act (1766)
Asserted that Parliament had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies in all cases whatsoever
Townshend Acts (1767)
Acts which enacted new taxes to be collected on imports of tea, glass, and paper. Also created the writs of assistance to help people search homes for smuggled items.
writs of assistance
A general license to search anywhere; used to search private homes for smuggled goods
John Dickinson: Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Work of literature in which Dickinson argued that no taxation without representation was an important principle of English law
Massachusetts Circular Letter
Letter which urged the colonies to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts. British officials ordered it retracted and threatened to do away with the Massachusetts legislative government and increase the number of troops in Boston
Boston Massacre (1770)
(1770) British guards, harrassed by colonists, fire into a crowd, killing five people
An African American man who was one of the five people killed in the Boston Massacre
Committees of Correspondence
Initiated by Samuel Adams (1772), these spread news of suspicious acts by the British throughout the colonies
British customs ship, which had caught many smugglers, ran aground and colonists dressed as Indians drove everyone off the boat, then burned it
Tea Act (1773)
Lowered the price of tea, but still had a very small tax on it. Colonists still refused to buy it on principle
Boston Tea Party (1773)
In December 1773, colonists dressed as Indians threw 342 chests of imported tea into the harbor
Act which closed the port of Boston, prohibiting trade in and out ot the harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for
Massachusetts Government Act
Act which reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor
Administration of Justice Act
Act which allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of the colonies
This expanded a previous act, allowing British soldiers to be quartered in private homes
Quebec Act (1774)
Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec, set up a government for Quebec and set the border at the Ohio River
A European movement in literature and philosophy; used human reasoning to solve problems
Believe that God established natural laws in creating the universe, but that the role of divine intervention in human affairs was minimal
Trusted human reason to solve the many problems of life and society; emphasized reason, science, and respect for humanity
English philosopher who said that all people have rights, simply because they are human and that people have a right and a responsibility to revolt against any government that failed to protect their rights