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French and Indian War

(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.

George Washington

Led a small militia from Virginia to stop work on French Fort Duquesne. Was forced to surrender. (July 3rd, 1754)

Edward Braddock

General who led an army from Virginia, but was defeated (1755)

Albany Plan of Union (1754)

British government called for representatives from several colonies to meet in Albany, NY, to provide for an intercolonial government to recruit troops and collect taxes. (1754)
Set a precedent for other revolutionary meetings.

Peace of Paris (1763)

Peace treaty signed to end the French and Indian War (1763)
Britain gained French Canada and Spanish Florida.
France gave Spain its western territory.

salutary neglect

Britian had exercised little direct control over the colonies and did not enforce its navigation laws
This changed after the French and Indian War

George III; crown

King of England and member of the Whig party


Dominant political party in Parliament who wanted to solve England's financial problems through the colonies


Legislative house of Great Britain

Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)

(1763) Indian chief Pontiac led a major attack against the colonies. The British did not rely on colonial forces, but instead sent their army to deal with the rebellion

Proclamation Act of 1763

Prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachain Mountains. British hoped it would prevent violence between Native Americans and colonists.
The colonists were angry and disobeyed the law, moving to the west of the mountains in large numbers (1763)

Sugar Act (1764)

Placed taxes on goods such as foreign sugar and other luxuries

Quartering Act (1765)

Required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers in the colonies

Stamp Act (1765)

Required that revenue stamps be placed on almost all printed paper. First direct tax paid by the people.
Boycotts were effective in repealing this Act.

Patrick Henry

Young Virginian lawyer who coined the phrase "No taxation without representation" in his speech to the House of Burgesses

Stamp Act Congress

Representatives from nine colonies met in NY (1765), and decided that only their own elected representatives had the power to approve taxes

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Secret society who intimidated tax agents; tarred and feathered some tax collectors

Declaratory Act (1766)

Asserted that Parliament had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies in all cases whatsoever

Townshend Acts (1767)

Acts which enacted new taxes to be collected on imports of tea, glass, and paper. Also created the writs of assistance to help people search homes for smuggled items.

writs of assistance

A general license to search anywhere; used to search private homes for smuggled goods

John Dickinson: Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania

Work of literature in which Dickinson argued that no taxation without representation was an important principle of English law

Samuel Adams

In 1768, he wrote the Massachusetts Circular Letter with James Otis

James Otis

In 1768, he wrote the Massachusetts Circular Letter with Samuel Adams

Massachusetts Circular Letter

Letter which urged the colonies to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts. British officials ordered it retracted and threatened to do away with the Massachusetts legislative government and increase the number of troops in Boston

Lord Frederick North

New prime minister of Britain, urged Parliment to repeal the Townshend Acts

Boston Massacre (1770)

(1770) British guards, harrassed by colonists, fire into a crowd, killing five people

Crispus Attacks

An African American man who was one of the five people killed in the Boston Massacre

Committees of Correspondence

Initiated by Samuel Adams (1772), these spread news of suspicious acts by the British throughout the colonies

Gaspee incident

British customs ship, which had caught many smugglers, ran aground and colonists dressed as Indians drove everyone off the boat, then burned it

Tea Act (1773)

Lowered the price of tea, but still had a very small tax on it. Colonists still refused to buy it on principle

Boston Tea Party (1773)

In December 1773, colonists dressed as Indians threw 342 chests of imported tea into the harbor

Intolerable Acts

Colonist name for the Coercive Acts

Coercive Acts (1774)

A series of acts made to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party

Port Act

Act which closed the port of Boston, prohibiting trade in and out ot the harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for

Massachusetts Government Act

Act which reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor

Administration of Justice Act

Act which allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of the colonies

Quartering Act

This expanded a previous act, allowing British soldiers to be quartered in private homes

Quebec Act (1774)

Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec, set up a government for Quebec and set the border at the Ohio River


A European movement in literature and philosophy; used human reasoning to solve problems


Believe that God established natural laws in creating the universe, but that the role of divine intervention in human affairs was minimal


Trusted human reason to solve the many problems of life and society; emphasized reason, science, and respect for humanity

John Locke

English philosopher who said that all people have rights, simply because they are human and that people have a right and a responsibility to revolt against any government that failed to protect their rights

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

French philosopher

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