Therapeutics Nutrition and Obesity
1 in ___ adults is obese and 1 in ___ children is obese.
___ and ___ females have the highest prevalence of obesity.
African-American, Mexican American
___ or ____ can increase or decrease eating.
Biogenic amines, neuropeptides
What are some diseases that can secondarily cause obesity?
hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, insulinoma, hypothalmic disorders
Food gives energy in the form of ___, which is a measure of heat.
___ are found in carbohydrates, fat, protein, and alcohol.
___ is the rate at which energy is used in the body.
The ___ is energy used by the body to absorb, transport, store, and metabolize food.
The ___ is the energy required to complete cellular processes in the body to sustain normal physiologic activity.
basal metabolic rate
EER (male >19 years) = ___
662 - (9.53 x age) + PA [15.9 x weight + 540 x height]
EER (female >19 years) = ___
354 - (6.91 x age) + PA[9.36 x weight + 726 x height]
You want to use BMI in conjunction with waist circumference, especially if BMI is <___ kg/m2.
You measure the waist circumference at the ___ (beginning, end) of expiration.
Goal of WC for men is <___ inches and for women is <___ inches.
A patient with metabolic syndrome will have increased risk for ___ and/or ___.
ASCVD, DM 2
Risk factors for metabolic syndrome include ___, ___, ___, ___, and ___.
waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL, HTN, fasting glucose
The waist circumference must be >___ inches for men and >___ inches for women.
The triglycerides must be at or above ___ mg/dL or on lipid medications.
A low HDL is <___ mg/dL for men and <___ mg/dL for women.
HTN must be at or above ___/___ mmHg or on HTN medications.
Elevated fasting glucose must be at or above ___ mg/dL or on DM medications.
Carbohydrates should comprise about ___% of the diet.
Carbohydrates contain ___ calories per gram.
___ include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
___ include sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
___ are sweeteners for food.
The storage form of carbohydrates is ___.
___ (Insoluble, Soluble) fiber prolongs stomach emptying and thus glucose is absorbed slower and binds with fatty acids.
___ (Insoluble, Soluble) fiber adds bulk and regulates pH.
For patients with diabetes, 1 carbohydrate choice = ___ grams.
You should generally have ___ carbohydrate choices per meal and ___ per snack.
Protein should comprise ___% of the diet.
Protein contains ___ calories per gram.
Proteins are two or more ___ linked together.
Humans cannot make ___ amino acids that are essential to obtain in the diet.
Fats should comprise ___% of the diet.
Fats contain ___ calories per gram.
Fats can serve as a ___ source.
Saturated fat should comprise <___% of caloric intake, is usually ___ (liquid, solid) at room temperature, and increases ___ and ___ cholesterol.
7, solid, total, LDL
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are ___ (liquid, solid) at room temperature and ___ (liquid, solid) when stored in the fridge.
Monounsaturated fatty acids are ___ (liquid, solid) at room temperature and ___ (liquid, solid) when stored in the fridge.
Trans fatty acids should comprise <___% of caloric intake.
Trans fatty acids increase ___ cholesterol and decrease ___ cholesterol.
A patient should consume <___ mg/day of cholesterol, and essentially <___mg/day if they have diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors.
Cholesterol is naturally produced in the ___.
Cholesterol increases ___ and ___ cholesterol.
Alcohol contains ___ calories per gram.
Most alcoholic drinks are high in ___ and ___.
The fat-soluble vitamins are ___.
A, D, E, K
The water-soluble vitamins are ___.
People older than 50 years should consume vitamin ___.
Women of childbearing age should consume at least ___ mcg of folate.
It is recommended to consume <___ mg of sodium per day.
It is recommended to consume at least ___ mg per day of potassium.
It is recomended to consume ___ mg of calcium per day.
___ is not currently considering change.
___ is ambivalent about change.
___ is testing the waters.
___ is practicing new behavior.
___ is sustaining new behavior.
___ is resumption of old behavior.
Set an initial goal to decrease body weight by ___% from baseline over ___ months.
Generally, do not lose more than ___ pounds per week.
Determine the EER then decrease the caloric intake by ___ calories per day.
1 teaspoon salt = ___ mg
The TLC diet recommends consuming ___ grams of dietary fiber per day.
The TLC diet recommends consuming ___ grams of soluble fiber per day.
The TLC diet recommends consuming ___ grams of plant stanols per day.
The TLC diet recommends expending at least ___ kilocalories per day of physical activity.
It is recommended to take part in at least ___ minutes of moderate intensity activity per week.
Pharmacological therapy is indicated for patients with a BMI equal to or greater than ___ kg/m2 or a BMI equal to or greater than ___ kg/m2 in the presence of other risk factors.
An example of a noradrenergic/serotonergic agent is ___.
The MOA for noradrenergic/serotonergic agents is enhanced ___ and ___ neurotransmission.
Noradrenergic/serotonergic agents have ___, ___, and ___ adverse effects.
cardiovascular, CNS, GI
You administer noradrenergic/serotonergic agents orally ___, usually ___ hour prior to breakfast.
Noradrenergic/serotonergic agents are indicated for ___ (long, short) term use, about ___ weeks.
Is weight regain common?
An example of a lipase inhibitor is ___.
The MOA of a lipase inhibitor is that it inhibits digestive ___, reduces dietary fat absorption by ___%, with minimal systemic absorption.
Lipase inhibitors are contraindicated in ___ syndromes or ___.
The dosing of Xenical is one ___ mg capsule ___ with meals.
The dosing of Alli is one ___ mg capsule ___ with meals.
Alli use suggests limiting fat intake to ___ grams per meal.
Xenical is approved for equal to or greater than ___ years.
There are ___-soluble vitamin issues, so it is important to take a ___ ___ hours before or after lipase inhibitors.
fat, MVI, 2
Ephedra and MaHuang caused ___ effects.
Caffeine may cause ___ or ___.
Surgery is indicated for patients with a BMI equal to or greater than ___ kg/m2 or equal to or greater than ___ kg/m2 with comorbidities.
Significant morbidity issues include ___, ___, and ___.
malabsorption, DVT, infection
___ restricts gastric volume.
Vertical banded gastroplasty
___ limits food intake and alters digestion.