137 terms

AP Human Geography Industry and Economic Development

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break-of-bulk point
a location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
bulk-gaining industry
an industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
bulk-reducing industry
an industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume in inputs
cottage industry
manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
just-in-time delivery
type of delivery when needed parts for production are scheduled to arrive "just-in-time" for production. Important for Single Market Manufacturers to be close to market.
Labor-intensive industry
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
right-to-work state
A U.S. state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.
site factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital
situation factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
basic industries
industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside of their settlement
business services
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
central place
-Central Place:Market center where goods and services are exchanged. In cities and towns. Area that is service=market area or hinterland
clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
consumer services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
economic base
A community's collection of basic industries.
gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
market area
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
nonbasic industries
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
public services
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
range
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use the service
rank-size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
service
Activities performed by people, firms or government agencies to satisfy economic wants.
threshold
In central place theory, the size of the population required to make provision of services economically feasible.
adolescent fertility rate
The number of births to women aged 15-19 years old per 1,000 women in the same age group.
developed country
a modern, industrialized country in which people are generally better educated and healthier and live longer than people in developing countries do
developing country
A country that has low industrial production and little modern technology.
development
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
fair trade
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
gender inequality index
a measure that captures the loss in achievements due to gender disparities in the dimensions of reproductive health, empowerment and labor force participation; 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (total inequality)
gross domestic product
The sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation
gross national income
The monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country
human development index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
inequality-adjusted HDI
An index that accounts for the impact of inequality on the human development of people in a country
literacy rate
Percentage of people who can read and write
maternal mortality rate
Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth.
primary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
productivity
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
secondary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
structural adjustment program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
tertiary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
value added
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
core-periphery model
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
dependency theory
A model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
gender empowerment measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
international monetary fund
An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
less developed country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
more developed country
(MDC) also known as a relatively developed country, a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
nolan's stages of growth model
stages of growth model is a theoretical model for the growth of information technology (IT) in a business or similar organization. It was developed by Richard L. Nolan during the 1970s
purchasing power parity
A measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
Rostow's development model
Model created in the 1950's that gives an idea of where a country is in their stage of development. The model of economic development describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed to most-developed countries. There are five stages in this model, including: 1. "The traditional society," 2. "The preconditions for takeoff," 3. "The takeoff," 4. "The drive to maturity," 5. "The age of mass consumption."
transnational corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
Wallerstein's World Systems Theory
drawing on conflict view, described unequal economic and political relationships in which certain industrialized nations and their global corporations dominate core of the world's economic system
World Bank
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
World Trade Organization
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.
agglomeration effects
cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among functionally related activities.
backwash effects
the negative impacts on a region of the economic growth of some other region.
commodity chains
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution, resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market
creative destruction
The creation of new products and new production methods destroys the market positions of firms committed to existing products and old ways of doing business
deindustrialization
Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
developmentalism
the idea that every country and region will eventually make economic progress toward a high level mass of consumption if they only compete to the best of their ability within the world economy
export-processing zones
areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries
fixed cost
Costs that do not vary with the quantity of output produced
footloose firm
a firm with manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting activities or product is not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor material orientation
Fordism
A system of assembly-line manufacturing and mass production named after Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company and developer of the Model T car. (783)
import substitution
a government policy that uses trade restrictions and subsidies to encourage domestic production of manufactured goods
localization economies
cost savings that accrue to particular industries as a result of clustering together at a specific location
locational interdependence theory
Theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.
maquiladora
The term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low-wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
Millenium Development Goals
The Millennium Development Goals( MDGs) are recently developed mandates by the United Nations designed to erase poverty by the year 2015. These eight development goals seek to promote gender equality and empower women through provisions of better women's healthcare, hunger eradication, basic education and an end to abject poverty.
neocolonialism
A new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
Neo-Fordism
economic principles in which the logic of mass production coupled with mass consumption is modified by the addition of more flexible production, distribution, and marketing systems
offshoring
Moving operations from the country where a company is headquartered to a country where pay rates are lower but the necessary skills are available.
outsourcing
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
quaternary economic activities
Any economic activity pertaining to the collection, processing, and manipuation of information, capital, and culture - finance, government, insurance, legal services, etc.
quinary economic activities
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
sector
a part of an area of activity, especially of business, industry, or trade
primary production
Primary products are goods that are available from cultivating raw materials without a manufacturing process. Significant primary product industries include, agriculture, fishing, mining, and forestry.
secondary production
the ​manufacturing of ​goods rather than ​producing ​raw ​materials.
tertiary production
The segment of the economy that provides services to its consumers. This includes a wide range of businesses including financial institutions, schools, transports and restaurants.
services
service is an intangible commodity. Service provision is often an economic activity where the buyer does not generally, except by exclusive contract, obtain exclusive ownership of the thing purchased.
quaternary production
The quaternary sector of the economy is a way to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy - which typically includes services such as information technology, information-generation and -sharing, media, and research and development.
quinary production
Some consider there to be a branch of the quaternary sector called the quinary sector, which includes the highest levels of decision making in a society or economy.
commodity chains
a linked system of processes that gather resources, convert them into goods, package them for distribution, disperse them, and sell them on the market
mining
This economic activity stimulated railroad construction, founded communities, created mining laws and lead to statehood; it often lead to environmental disaster
resource-dependent country
A country that depends on a specific resource to keep the economy alive and growing.
nonrenewable products
products that once they are extracted they can not be replaced
renewable products
Renewable products can be grown or naturally replenished . grow faster than humans can deplete them.
alternative energy
Any source of energy other than fossil fuels that is used for constructive purposes.
sustainable use
The use of a resource in ways that maintain the resource at a certain quality for a certain period of time
ecosystem
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
value-added processing
the more complex and technology-driven the manufacturing is, the higher value applied to the finished product
durable goods
goods that last for a relatively long time, such as refrigerators, cars, and DVD players
non-durable goods
A nondurable good is an item consumed in one or a few uses, such as food products and fuel.
low-benefit services
Low salary, not a lot of benefits.
high-benefit services
pay tends to be salaried and includes benefits such as health, dental, vision, sick days, etc.
service firms
deliver a service rather than a tangible product
deindustrialized
Refers to an industrial city whose factory-based economy has transitioned to an economy dominated by the service sector.
foreign competition
Business competition from other countries
off-shore locations
When one countries company opens up companies in another country
investment value
Value to a particular individual (investor).
returns on investment
The sum of the economic value of improved performance + the saving from avoiding bad hires
plow
a large farming implement with one or more blades fixed in a frame, drawn by a tractor or by animals and used for cutting furrows in the soil and turning it over, especially to prepare for the planting of seeds.
steel
A form of iron that is both durable and flexible. It was first mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment.
computer
Electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result.
microchip
A miniature electronic circuit used to control computers and most other electronic devices
uneven development
the increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from the globalization of the economy
industrialized economies
A major exporter of manufactured goods and investment funds heavily trading goods with other advanced economies and exporting goods and funds to other types of economies for raw materials and semifinished products.
service-based economies
highly developed economies that focus on research and development, marketing, tourism, sales, and telecommunications
communist
Command system, government owns the means of production, economic decisions are made by central government, and government provides extensive social programs for population
restructuring
a new way of thinking about a problem that aids its solution
free-market reforms
involved the decollectivization of agriculture, the opening up of the country to foreign investment, and permission for entrepreneurs to start businesses.
agricultural economies
an economy based on farming in permanent fields with heavy investment of labor, water, storage facilities, and other resources, and usually including domesticated food and fiber crops and draft animals
resource-based economies
An economy that relies on the extraction and/or primary processing of raw materials
underdeveloped states
Having a low level of economic productivity and technological sophistication within the contemporary range of possibility.
economic crisis
Caused by debt, inflation and loss of empire
more developed countries
Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.
less developed country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
newly industrialized countries
Refers to countries that are building up their industries and infrastructure. These countries are generally shifting from an agricultural to an industrial economy.
infrastructure
Fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
rapid population growth
Increase in population that leads to over population issues
rapid rural-to-urban migration
Lots of people moving from rural areas to cities in large numbers
foreign aid
Consists of concessional financial flows from the developed world to economically less developed countries, and includes CONCESSIONAL LOANS, and GRANTS.
foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
fisheries
aquaculture, when people fihs and sell for a job
timber markets
cutting down trees and selling them
alternative energy
Any source of energy other than fossil fuels that is used for constructive purposes.
development loans
A USDA home loan from the USDA loan program, also known as the USDA Rural Development Guaranteed Housing Loan Program, is a mortgage loan offered to rural property owners by the United States Department of Agriculture.
donor state
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technology transfer
The communication of specific plans, designs, or educational programs necessary for the use of new technologies from one society or class to another.
private investors
include individuals who purchase shares in companies
investment firms
Pool the funds of many savers and invest these funds in various types of assets.
wolrd bank
Offers loans and advice to nations
comparative advantages
The ability of a country to produce a good at a lower cost than another country can.
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