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______ is also described as evaluating competing ideas, observations, and a way of asking and answering questions
(2) said the mind is separable from the body and continues after the body dies, knowledge is innate, and derived principles by logic
Socrates and Plato
(1) was a student of plato; said the soul is not separable from the body, principles were derived from observations, and knowledge is not pre-existing
(1) said the mind and body are separate and the soul lives on after death; dissected animals and said the brain's cavity contained "animal spirits" allowing movements
(1) one of the first "founders of modern science"; centered on experiment, experience, and common sense judgement
(1) said the mind is a "blank slate" (tabula rosa); helped form empiricism (knowledge that originates in experience) and science should rely on observation and experimentation; said things have to be observable and measurable
(2) were behaviorists; dismissed introspection (inner sensations); redefined psychology as SCIENCE ROOTED IN OBSERVATION OF BEHAVIOR
John B Watson and B.F. Skinner
(2) humanistic psychologists; emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
helps with everyday life challenges such as marital strife, academic issues, social coaches
medical doctors( MD); provides therapy to diagnose only, provides medication (rx), treats medical causes of disorders then refers client to psychologist
we need to view problems with a true ____ ____ and also with the "____ __ ____" principle
open mind, whack a mole
examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and accesses conclusions
specific outcomes may not be correct in every situation but the _____ _____ of the experiment may help explain behaviors
men and women are overwhelmingly biologically and psychologically more similar than different
why do psychologists study animals?
to learn how different species learn, think, and behave; and to learn about ppl
APA states its ethical to experiment on ppl if....(4 things)
informed consent, protect from harm, confidentiality, debrief
oldest method; studying one individual or small group in great depth; can suggest hypothesis for further study; CANNOT generalize
sample taht fairly represents a population because each member has an = chance of inclusion
watching and recording the behavior of organisms in a natural occuring environment
reveals how closely 2 things vary together and how well either one predicts the other
to explore cause and effect, we must must manipulate the _________ and hold ______ other terms in an experiment
independent variable, constantq
assigning participants to experimental/ control groups so personal bias will not exist
experiments aim to manipulate the______ variable, measure the ____ variable, control all other variables
the view that knowledge comes from experience via senses, and science flourishes through observation and experiment
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the oganism to adapt, survive, and flourish
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
(2) who was a legendary teacher-writer than mentored ____, who became a pioneering memory researcher?
William James and Mary Calkins
Who is a famed personality theorist and therapist, whose ideas influenced humanitys self-understanding
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenom,enon
levels of anaylsis
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often school, work, or marriage related) and in achieving greater well being
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions, rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
an observation technique in which one person i studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principle
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
false consensus effect
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
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