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118 terms

AP Psychology Modules 1-3

STUDY
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scientific study of behavior and mental processes
psychology
______ is also described as evaluating competing ideas, observations, and a way of asking and answering questions
psychology
(2) said the mind is separable from the body and continues after the body dies, knowledge is innate, and derived principles by logic
Socrates and Plato
(1) was a student of plato; said the soul is not separable from the body, principles were derived from observations, and knowledge is not pre-existing
Aristotle
(1) said the mind and body are separate and the soul lives on after death; dissected animals and said the brain's cavity contained "animal spirits" allowing movements
Rene Descartes
(1) one of the first "founders of modern science"; centered on experiment, experience, and common sense judgement
Francis Bacon
(1) said the mind is a "blank slate" (tabula rosa); helped form empiricism (knowledge that originates in experience) and science should rely on observation and experimentation; said things have to be observable and measurable
John Locke
(1) specialized in developmental psychology (children)
Jean Piaget
(2) were behaviorists; dismissed introspection (inner sensations); redefined psychology as SCIENCE ROOTED IN OBSERVATION OF BEHAVIOR
John B Watson and B.F. Skinner
(2) humanistic psychologists; emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
explored scientifically the way we perceive, process, and remember info
cognitive revolution
study of the interaction of thought processes and brain function
cognitive neuroscience
biology vs environment
nature vs nurture
how the brain and body enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
neuroscience perspective
how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
evolutionary perspective
Charles Darwin is known for what perspective?
evolutionary
Id, Ego, and Superego are under what perspective?
psychodynamic
Sigmund Freud is known for what perspective?
psychodynamic
what type of research builds a knowledge base for psychology?
basic research
what type of research attempts to solve practical problems?
applied research
helps with everyday life challenges such as marital strife, academic issues, social coaches
counseling
access and treats mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
clinical psychologist
has a PhD; provides therapy, administers and interprets tests, conducts research
psychologist
medical doctors( MD); provides therapy to diagnose only, provides medication (rx), treats medical causes of disorders then refers client to psychologist
psychiatrist
we need to view problems with a true ____ ____ and also with the "____ __ ____" principle
open mind, whack a mole
the tendency to believe , after learning the outcome, that one would have forseen it
hindsight bias
we tend to think we know more than we do; we tend to be more confident than correct
overconfidence
examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and accesses conclusions
critical thinking
explains, organizes and predicts behaviors or events
theory
testable prediction
hypothesis
statement of procedures used to define research variables
operational definition
repeat observation or experiment
replicate
specific outcomes may not be correct in every situation but the _____ _____ of the experiment may help explain behaviors
general principle
shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next
culture
men and women are overwhelmingly biologically and psychologically more similar than different
gender
men manifest disorders ____
outwardly
women manifest disorders ____
inwardly
why do psychologists study animals?
to learn how different species learn, think, and behave; and to learn about ppl
APA states its ethical to experiment on ppl if....(4 things)
informed consent, protect from harm, confidentiality, debrief
oldest method; studying one individual or small group in great depth; can suggest hypothesis for further study; CANNOT generalize
case study
studies many cases in less depth; asks ppl to report behavior or opinions
survey
US( all ages, races, socioeconomic status, gender, etc.)
target population
sample that matches the census
stratified sample
sample taht fairly represents a population because each member has an = chance of inclusion
random sampling
tendency to overestimate others agreement with us
false consensus
watching and recording the behavior of organisms in a natural occuring environment
naturalistic observation
describes behavior. doesn not explain it.
naturalistic observation
statistical measure of a relationship
correlation coefficient
reveals how closely 2 things vary together and how well either one predicts the other
correlation coefficient
A _____ correlation means that 2 sets of scores tend to rise and fall together
positive
A _____ correlation means that 2 things relate inversely
negative
A perfect positive correlation is ____ to ____
one to one
no matter how strong a correlation, its does not prove ____, only ____
cause, relationship
perception of a relationship where none exists
illusory correlation
the only way to find cause and effect is to _________
do an experiment
to explore cause and effect, we must must manipulate the _________ and hold ______ other terms in an experiment
independent variable, constantq
"sugar pill"
placebo
participants dont know who is receiving treatment
single blind
participants nor experimenter know who is receiving treatment
double blind
group that receives the treatment
experimental condition
group that receives no treatment, controls for environment
control condition
assigning participants to experimental/ control groups so personal bias will not exist
random assignment
factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied
independent variable
outcome factor or effect of independent variable
dependent variable
experiments aim to manipulate the______ variable, measure the ____ variable, control all other variables
independent, dependent
______________ works to equate the conditions/groups before any treament effects
random assignment
observe and record behavior; case study, survey, natural observations
descriptive
shows naturally occurring relationships
correlational
cause and effect; use random assignment to control for bias
experimental
______ statistics allow us to draw conclusions from organized data
inferential
average; most likely to change with different in standard deviation
mean
midpoint in scores
median
score that occurs most often
mode
how similar or diverse the scores are; range
variation
gap btwn highest and lowest scores
range
how the scores deviate from one another
standard deviation
more cases are better than ____
fewer
_____ samples are better than biased samples
representative (stratified)
if something is statistically significant, its _____
bad
when was the first psych lab created and by who?
wundt 1879
range and standard deviation are measures of what?
variability
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
psychology
the view that knowledge comes from experience via senses, and science flourishes through observation and experiment
empiricism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
structuralism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the oganism to adapt, survive, and flourish
functionalism
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
nature-nurture issue
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
natural selection
Who used introspection to search for the minds structural elements?
Edward Titchener
Who was the first woman to receive a psychology PhD?
Margaret Washburn
(2) who was a legendary teacher-writer than mentored ____, who became a pioneering memory researcher?
William James and Mary Calkins
Who is a famed personality theorist and therapist, whose ideas influenced humanitys self-understanding
Sigmund Freud
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
humanistic psychology
Who argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies
Charles Darwin
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenom,enon
levels of anaylsis
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biopsychosocial approach
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
basic research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
applied research
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often school, work, or marriage related) and in achieving greater well being
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
clinical psychology
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
psychiatry
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
hindsight bias
thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions, rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
critical thinking
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
theory
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
hypothesis
a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing natures answer
the scientific method
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
operational definition
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
replication
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
culture
an observation technique in which one person i studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principle
case study
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
survey
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
false consensus effect
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for study
population
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
random sample
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
naturalistic observation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
correlation
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
scatterplot
the perception of a relationship where none exists
illusory correlation
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance
statistical significance