How can we help?
You can also find more resources in our
Select a category
Something is confusing
Something is broken
I have a suggestion
What is your email?
What is 1 + 3?
Anatomy 2 Immunity
the organisms power to overcome its hosts defenses (how strong it is)
number of pathogens that invade the body
likelihood of getting sick, influenced by general physical and emotional health, nutrition, living habits and age.
The first line of defense against invaders includes:
2.Mucous membranes (cilia in upper respiratory tract)
3.Body secretions(tears and saliva)
4.Certain reflexes (sneezing).
One cell eating another.
Macrophages A.K.A. "Big Eater"
Bouncers of the body.
Natural Killer Cell
recognize body cells with abnormal membranes (such as tumor cells), destroy bad cells on contact, found in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and blood.
a nonspecific defensive response, shown by heat, redness, swelling, and pain.
small blood vessels dilate (widen)
mixture of leukocytes and fluid
living and dead white blood cells.
An increase in body temperature above the normal range
can be a sign that body defenses are active.
Certain cells infected with a virus release a substance that
prevents nearby cells from producing more virus.
it "interferes" with multiplication and spread of the virus.
any foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response.
4 Types of T Cells
1.Cytotoxic T Cells
2.Helper T Cells (interleukins)
3.Regulatory T Cells
4.Memory T Cells
Cytotoxic T Cells
POISON, destroy foreign cells directly.
Helper T Cells (interleukins)
ASSIST in the destruction of foreign cells.
Regulatory T Cells
suppress the immune response in order to prevent overactivity. (REGULATE)
Memory T Cells
REMEMBER an antigen and start a rapid response if that antigen is contracted again.
phagocytic white blood cells derived from monocytes. They ingest foreign proteins.
Major history compatibility complex
For a T Cell to react with a foreign antigen
that antigen must be presented to the T Cell along with the MHC proteins.
Antibody A.K.A. "immunoglobin"
a substance produced in response to an antigen.
Antibodies are manufactured
by B cells.
antigens and bacteria that grow outside the cells.
All antibodies are contained
in a portion of the blood plasma called the Gamma Globulin.
Vaccines can be made with live organisms
or with organisms killed by heat or chemicals.
Vaccines must be nonvirulent
such as cow pox virus used for small pox immunization.
an organism weakened for use in vaccines.
The newest types of vaccines are produced from
organic components of pathogens or by genetic engineering.
An active immunity acquired by artificial or even natural means
does not last a lifetime.
Circulating antibodies can
decline with time.
Booster Shots are given to
help maintain a higher titer level of antibodies in the blood.
The number and timing of doses
varies with the different vaccines.
vaccine given to children in several different injections for diphtheria,tetanus and pertussis.
Dr. Jonas Salk
developed an inactivated polio vaccine (IVP), made with killed polio virus.
measles, mumps, rubella vaccine.
Infants are now routinely immunized against
A vaccine against chicken pox (varicella) has been available since
A shingles vaccine is available for
people 60 years or older.
causes a highly contagious gastrointestinal infection among babies and toddlers. A new vaccine is now available for children.
Human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted, causes cervical cancer, vaccines available for males and females 11-26
Rabies vaccine is an exception to the rule that
a vaccine should be given before invasion by a disease organism.
Immune Serum A.K.A. Antiserum
"ready made" serum gives short lived but effective protection against the invaders
often derived from animals, mainly horses. Has been found that the horses tissues produce large quantities of antibodies in response to the injection of organisms or their toxins.
Examples of Antisera
for snake bites, botulism, rabies.
hypersensitivity to certain things.
reaction producing substances (such as pet dander.)
When a susceptible persons tissues are repeatedly exposed to an allergen
those tissues become sensitized (antibodies are produced in them)
The antigen-antibody reaction in sensitized individuals
promotes the release of excess histamine.
Antihistamines are drugs that counteract histamine and
may be effective in treating the symptoms of certain allergies.
an allergic manifestation that may occur in response to various sera. (over exposure)
People who are allergic to the proteins in the serum from a horse or some other animal show such symptoms as
fever, vomiting, joint pain, enlargement of the lymph nodes, and hives (urticaria).
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
H.I.V. (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
destroys the specific helper T Cells
HIV is retrovirus meaning
RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material.
malignant skin cancer, that AIDS patients often contract
cancer of the blood forming cells in the bone marrow.
Multiple Myeloma causes
loss of resistance to infection, anemia, bone pain, and bone weakening, accelerates loss of bone tissue.
Blood forming stem cells in the bone marrow
replace cells killed by the chemotherapy.
process of NK cells and immune system patrolling for cancerous cells.
As a person ages cell mediated immunity declines
and cancer is more likely to develop.
treating cancer by stimulating the patients immune system.
grafting to a recipient of an organ or tissue from an animal or other human to replace an injured or incompetent body part.
Every organisms natural tendency to destroy foreign substances. (body rejecting a kidney transplant)
Dr. Edward Jenner (Father of Immunology)
Doctor to inject first vaccine, cow pox injected for small pox vaccine.
Milk maid that told the Dr. that the secret was in first contracting cow pox.
Cow the cow pox was taken from.
Son of Dr. Jenners' gardner, was the first person the vaccine was injected with cow pox to ward off small pox on May 14th 1796.
2 Types of Immunity
Immunity to certain diseases, (humans can not get feline leukemia.)
Occurs Naturally (active- chicken pox / passive- mothers milk) and Artificially (active- vaccination / passive- immune serum, such as anti-venom serum)