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likelihood of getting sick, influenced by general physical and emotional health, nutrition, living habits and age.
The first line of defense against invaders includes:
2.Mucous membranes (cilia in upper respiratory tract)
3.Body secretions(tears and saliva)
4.Certain reflexes (sneezing).
Natural Killer Cell
recognize body cells with abnormal membranes (such as tumor cells), destroy bad cells on contact, found in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and blood.
Certain cells infected with a virus release a substance that
prevents nearby cells from producing more virus.
4 Types of T Cells
1.Cytotoxic T Cells
2.Helper T Cells (interleukins)
3.Regulatory T Cells
4.Memory T Cells
For a T Cell to react with a foreign antigen
that antigen must be presented to the T Cell along with the MHC proteins.
The newest types of vaccines are produced from
organic components of pathogens or by genetic engineering.
vaccine given to children in several different injections for diphtheria,tetanus and pertussis.
causes a highly contagious gastrointestinal infection among babies and toddlers. A new vaccine is now available for children.
Human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted, causes cervical cancer, vaccines available for males and females 11-26
Rabies vaccine is an exception to the rule that
a vaccine should be given before invasion by a disease organism.
Immune Serum A.K.A. Antiserum
"ready made" serum gives short lived but effective protection against the invaders
often derived from animals, mainly horses. Has been found that the horses tissues produce large quantities of antibodies in response to the injection of organisms or their toxins.
When a susceptible persons tissues are repeatedly exposed to an allergen
those tissues become sensitized (antibodies are produced in them)
Antihistamines are drugs that counteract histamine and
may be effective in treating the symptoms of certain allergies.
an allergic manifestation that may occur in response to various sera. (over exposure)
People who are allergic to the proteins in the serum from a horse or some other animal show such symptoms as
fever, vomiting, joint pain, enlargement of the lymph nodes, and hives (urticaria).
Multiple Myeloma causes
loss of resistance to infection, anemia, bone pain, and bone weakening, accelerates loss of bone tissue.
grafting to a recipient of an organ or tissue from an animal or other human to replace an injured or incompetent body part.
Every organisms natural tendency to destroy foreign substances. (body rejecting a kidney transplant)
Dr. Edward Jenner (Father of Immunology)
Doctor to inject first vaccine, cow pox injected for small pox vaccine.
Son of Dr. Jenners' gardner, was the first person the vaccine was injected with cow pox to ward off small pox on May 14th 1796.
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