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Biology 1 - Chapter 5
Terms in this set (55)
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds.
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer. Repeated units.
A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Most enzymes are proteins.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides). Means 1 carbon per water molecule. This molecule is also called a saccharide, which is greek for sugar.
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed by a dehydration reaction.
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
A polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
, consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by Î± glycosidic linkages.
An extensively branched glucose
polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of
; the animal equivalent of starch.
A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β glycosidic linkages.
A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.
Any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water.
A lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or triglyceride.
A carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also known as a triacylglycerol or triglyceride.
A lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride.
Saturated Fatty Acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
An unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds.
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes.
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached.
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as many hormones.
A chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
A polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
A biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure.
An organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group. Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by a dehydration reaction.
Why does Polypeptide =! Protein
Just as a ball of yarn doesn't equate to a sweater, the same goes here. It is the shape of the protein, not just the sequence.
Shaped like long fibers
What are the four levels of protein structure?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, & Quaternary.
Primary Protein Structure
The level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids.
Secondary Protein Structure
Regions of repetitive coiling (eg helix) or folding (eg pleated sheet/paper fan) of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone (not the side chains).
Tertiary Protein Structure
The overall shape of a protein molecule (3D structure) due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
A type of weak chemical interaction caused when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude water.
A strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer.
The particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide. 3D shape once all the polypeptides are considered/aggregated.
Sickle Cell Disease
A recessively inherited human blood disorder in which a single nucleotide change in the Î²-globin gene causes hemoglobin to aggregate, changing red blood cell shape and causing multiple symptoms in afflicted individuals.
In proteins, a process in which a protein loses its native shape due to the disruption of weak chemical bonds and interactions, thereby becoming biologically inactive; in DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme (noncellular) conditions of pH, salt concentration, or temperature.
A protein complex that assists in the proper folding of other proteins.
A technique used to study the three-dimensional structure of molecules. It depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A nucleic acid molecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses.
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain. The nucleotides can be those of DNA or RNA.
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups.
One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
The sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
The sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape.
Referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix (they run in opposite 5′ → 3′ directions).
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Biology 1 - Chapter 3
Biology 1 - Chapter 1
Biology 1 - Chapter 2
Biology 1 - Chapter 4
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