APES chapter 16-chapter 3

occupy most of the hydrosphere.

influence the atmosphere and lithosphere.

encompass much of the biosphere.
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Vast, riverlike flows of water called _____are driven by differences in density, heating, cooling, gravity, and wind.
-Surface currents can be very rapid and powerful, influencing climate, nutrient distribution, and pollution.

Ex: The Gulf Stream, for example, moves water at nearly 2 m/sec and brings warm water to Europe, moderating its climate.
North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW).The region of downwelling near Western EuropeEl Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a systematic shift in atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, and ocean circulation in the tropical Pacific Ocean. (bad) -Under normal conditions,prevailing winds blowfrom east to west alongthe equator, forming alarge convective loopin the atmosphere. -This causes a "pile-up"of warm water to formnear Indonesia, fuelingstorms in that region. La Niña events are the opposite of El Niño events; unusually cold waters rise to the surface and extend westward, causing winds blowing to the west to strengthen.El Nino vs La NinaEl Niñoconditions are triggered when air pressure decreases in the eastern Pacific and increases in the western Pacific, weakening the equatorial winds, allowing warm water to flow eastward, and suppressing upwelling along the Pacific coast of the Americas. -This can create stormactivity in normally aridregions like Californiaand drier conditionsin Indonesia.photic zonePortion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate. - top layer -absorbs about 80% of all solar energy and contains most the ocean's primary productivity.pelagicHabitats between the ocean surface and floor are called .benthicHabitats on the ocean floor are called .Intertidalecosystems spread between the uppermost reach of the high tide and lowest limit of the low tide. -_____organisms are exposed to sun part of the day, and covered in water the rest of the day.Tidesare the periodic rising and falling of the ocean's height at a given location due to the gravitational pull of the sun and moon.Salt marshesoccur where the tides wash over gently sloping sandy or silty substrates. -Water from rising and falling tides flows in and out of ________through channels called tidal creeks. -providebiodiversity, filterpollutants, and stabilizeshorelines.MangrovesTrees from a number of genera that live in salt water -trees that are salt tolerant, with roots that grow upward to gather oxygen and others that grow down to support the treelike stilts. -Fish, shellfish, snakes, and other organisms thrive among the roots in the water, while many birds feed and nest in the tree foliage.Estuariesbodies of water where rivers flow into the ocean, mixing saltwater with fresh water. -Salinity fluctuates daily due to the tides and changes in river flow. -are sheltered from the heavy waves of the ocean and provide habitat for many plants, which provide food for shellfish, birds, and fish.kelpLarge brown seaweed -Along many temperate coasts -grow from the floor of the continental shelves, reaching toward the sunlit surface.coral reefmass of calcium carbonate composed of the shells of tiny animals called corals.1)Extensions of a shoreline. 2)A barrier island paralleling a shoreline. 3)A ring around a submerged island called an atoll.Coral reefs may be found in three areas:coral bleachingOccurs when a coral becomes stressed and expels most of its colorful algae, leaving an underlying ghostly white skeleton of calcium carbonat -a process that occurs when zooxanthellae lose color and die, depriving the coral of nutrition -stressed by increased water temperatures and elevated pollution levels.planktonserve as the basis of the entire food web in these areas. serve as the basis of the entire food web in these areas.gyres,Ocean currents concentrate floating plastic and debris in ______ -areas of the ocean where currents converge.Great Pacific Garbage Patch,North Pacific Gyre contains the _____ -an area where plastic pieces outnumber organisms by a 6-to-1 margin. Plastic degrades slowlyharmful algal blooms.A population explosion of toxic algae caused by excessive nutrient concentrations. -Excessive nutrient concentrations can give rise to population explosions among some species of marine algae and creating "dead zones".ocean acidification,decreasing pH of ocean waters due to absorption of excess atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels -here the pH of the water decreases, making it difficult for sea creatures to grow shells. -also makes carbonate less available, creating a situation where shells will dissolve faster than they can be formed. -very little of the ocean will be able to support coral reefs.The oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as part of the carbon cycle. As a result, roughly a third of human-generated carbon dioxide has been absorbed into the ocean. Once a certain limit is passed, the oceans will not be able to absorb any more, further hastening global warming.Purse seiningdeploys large nets around schools of fish at the surface.Driftnettings the use of long nets that span large expanses of water and target species that traverse open water in large schools.Longline fishinginvolves setting out extremely long lines (up to 80 km long) with hundreds or thousands of baited hooks spaced between their lengths. -captures turtles, sharks, and albatrosses.Trawling/Bottom-trawlingtype of fishing done with net dragged across bottom the of the sea -involves dragging weighted cone-shaped nets through the pelagic zone. _____ works the same way, but targets the benthic zone. *** most harmful b/c bycatch -can destroy entire benthic ecosystems.Bycatchis the accidental capture of animals during industrial fishin Ex:Purse seining and driftnetting captures dolphins, sea turtles, and seals that end up drowning or dying of exposure on the deck of the ship.Marine protected areas (MPAs)restrict some human activities (like oil drilling), but allow fishing and other extractive activities.Marine reservesare areas of the ocean where fishing is prohibited. -Commercial and recreational fishers dislike these areas, but scientists argue that they can serve as production factories for fish for surrounding areas.