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French Revolution Chapter 6 Sections 4 and 5
Terms in this set (29)
What was Napoleons background?
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica, a French ruled island in the Mediterranean. HIs family were minor nobles, but had little money. At age 9 he was sent to France to be trained for a military career. When the revolution broke out, he was an ambitious 20 year old lieutenant, eager to make a name for himself.
How did Napoleon decide which side to take in the French Revolution?
Napoleon favored the Jacobins and republican rule. However, he found the conflicting ideas and personalities of the French Revolution confusing. He wrote to his brother in 1793 "since one must take sides, one might as well choose the side that is victorious, the side which devastates, loots and burns.
Describe Napoleons rise from an army lieutenant to Emperor of the French.
His many army successes in wars fueled his ambition. By 1799 he moved from a victorious general to a political leader. That year, he helped overthrow the weak directory and set up a three man governing board known as the Consulate. Another constitution was drawn up, but Napoleon soon took the title French Consul. In 1802 he had himself named consul for life. Two years later, Napoleon had acquired enough power to assume the title emperor of France.
What is a plebiscite?
At each step on his rise to power Napoleon had held a plebiscite or ballot in which voters say yes or no. Each time, the French strongly supported him.
What became the most important ideas of Napoleon's regime?
During the consulate and empire, Napoleon consolidated his power by strengthening the central government. Order, security, and efficiency replaced liberty, equality and fraternity as the slogans of the new regime.
Describe Napoleons policies.
To restore economic prosperity, Napoleon controlled prices, encouraged new industry, and built roads and canals. To ensure well-trained officials and military officers, he set up a system of public schools under strict government control. He also made peace with the Catholic church.
How was Napoleon able to please everyone?
Napoleon won support across class lines. He encouraged emigres to return, provided that they took an oath of loyalty. Peasants were relieved when he recognized their right to lands, they had bought from the church and nobles during the revolution. The middle class, who had benefited most from the revolution approved Napoleons economic revolution and the restoration of order after years of chaos. Napoleon also made jobs open all talent, a popular policy among those who remembered the old aristocratic monopoly of power.
What was the Napoleonic code? What values do they reflect?
The Napoleonic code embodied Enlightenment principals such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit. The napoleonic code also undid some reforms of the French Revolution. Women for example, lost most of their newly gained rights, they also could not exercise censorship.
What was the Grand Empire? How big was this? How did Napoleon accomplish this?
As Napoleon created a vast French empire, he redrew the map of Europe. He annexed or added outright, some areas to France, including the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Italy and Germany. He also abolished the tottering holy roman empire and created a 38 member confederation of the Rhine under French protection. He cut Prussian territory in half, turning part of old Poland into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Napoleon controlled much of Europe through forceful diplomacy.
How did Napoleon try to defeat Britain? Whereas efforts successful? Why/why not?
Napoleon first tried to invade England, but the admiral Horatio Nelson smashed a French fleet. With an invasion ruled out, Napoleon struck at Britians lifeblood, its commerce. He waged economic warfare through the continental system, which enclosed European ports to British goods. Britain's responded with its own blockade. In the end, Napoleons continental system failed to bring Britain to its knees.
Concordat of 1801
Church under state control still, but religious freedom for Catholics. Catholicism was declared religion of the majority of freedom,
countries who agree to fight together.
added outright; add a territory to an existing state or country.
shutting off a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.
How were conquered area of Europe affected by Napoleons rule?
Under Napoleon French armies spread the idea of the revolution across Europe.They backed liberal reforms in the lands they conquered. In some places they helped install revolutionary governments that abolished titles of nobility, ended church privileges, opened careers to men of talent, and ended serfdom and mineral dues. The Napoleonic Code, too was carried across Europe.
How did Nationalism backfire on Napoleon?
Although nationalism spurred French armies to succession, it worked against them too. Many Europeans who had welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution nevertheless saw Napoleon and his armies as foregone oppressors. They resented the continental system and Napoleons effort to impose French culture. From Rome, to Madrid to the Netherlands, Nationalism unleashed revolts against France.
Why did the Spanish resist French occupation? What is guerrilla warfare? What effect did it have?
The Spanish resisted French occupation because Napoleon replaced their king with his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. He also introduced reforms that sought to undermine the Spanish Catholic Church. Guerrilla warfare means a hit-and-run campaign of raids. The effect of this is it enraged the Spanish so much that the attacks kept a large number of French soldiers tied down in France, When Napoleon needed them else where.
How did Napoleon end war with Austria?
In 1804, at the battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon had won crushing victor against an Austro-Russian army of superior numbers. In 1809, the Austrians sough revenge. But once again, Napoleon triumphed this time the battle go Wogram. By the peace agreement that followed, Austria surrendered lands populated by more than three million people.
Why did Czar Alexander I withdraw Russia from the Continental system? What was Napoleons response?
The Russians were unhappy with the economic effects of Napoleons continental system. Yet another cause for concern was that Napoleon had enlarged the Grand Duchy of Warsaw that bordered Russia on the west. These and other issues led the Czar to withdraw Russia from the continental system. Napoleon responded to the Czars actions by assembling his grand army.
What was the scorched earth policy? Who used it? What was the effect?
To avoid battles with Napoleon, The Russians retreated eastward, burning crops and villages as they went. This "scorched earth" policy left the French hungry and cold as winter came. As Napoleon entered Moscow in September, he realized that he didn't have enough food for his army. About 10,000 soldiers survived, many died, and some were left deserted.
What was the downfall of Napoleon?
The disaster in Russia brought a new alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia against a weakened France. In 1813, they defeated Napoleon in the battle of the Nations at Leipzig.
How did Napoleon go into exile, but then return?
napoleons stepped down from power. The victors exiled him to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean. They then recognized Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI as the king of France. But, as economic depression and fear returned, loyalty to Napoleon came again. As the victorious allies gathered in Viena for a general peace conference, Napoleon escaped his island exile and returned to France. As citizens cheered Napoleons advance, Louis XVIII fled.
What was the result of Napoleons return? What was his ultimate fate?
Soldiers flocked to his banner. His ultimate fate is not good although many citizens cheered for his advance. Napoleons triumph was short lived. His star soared for only 100 days, while the allies reassembled their forces. And once again Napoleon was forced to abdicate and go into exile on St. Helena after he was defeated in the battle of Waterloo. This time he would not return.
What was Napoleons legacy? What were the lasting impacts of his rule?
Napoleon died in 1821, but his legend lived on in France and around the world. The napoleonic code consulted many changes of the revolution. On the world stage, Napoleons conquests spread the ideas of the revolution. He failed to make Europe into a French empire, but he sparked nationalist feeling across Europe.
What was the congress of Vienna?
After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state again sat down at the congress of Vienna. They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of revolution and war.
What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna? How did they accomplish those goals?
The chief goal of the congress of vienna decision makers was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy.
What were the problems with the peace made at the congress of Vienna?
To protect the new order, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain extended there wartime alliance into the postwar era. In the quadruple alliance, the four nations pledged to act together to maintain the balance of power and to suppress revolutionary uprisings. The Vienna statesmen achieved their immediate goals, but they failed to foresee how powerful new forces such as nationalism would shake the foundations of Europe.
restoring hereditary monarchies that the French revolution or Napoleon had unseated.
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