Endocrinology 1: Pituitary Gland

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(Anterior or Posterior?) pituitary is derived in the embryo from the endoderm of Rathke's pouch and consists of glandular tissue.

(Anterior or Posterior?) pituitary is a part of the nervous system and consists of non-myelinated axons and nerve terminals from neurons in the hypothalamus (neural tissue)
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Terms in this set (42)
The glandular tissue of the anterior pituitary contains 5 distinct glandular cells which synthesize and secrete specific _____ hormones. List the glandular cells. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)- peptide hormones 1) Somatotropes 2) Corticotropes 3) Thyrotropes 4) Gonadotropes 5) LactotropesWhat hormone does each of the following glandular cells secrete? (include abbreviation as well) 1) Somatotropes = _____ 2) Corticotropes = _____ 3) Thyrotropes = _____ 4) Gonadotropes = _____ 5) Lactotropes = _____1) Somatotropes = Human growth hormone (hGH) 2) Corticotropes = Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) 3) Thyrotropes = Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 4) Gonadotropes = Gonadotropic hormones, which include luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 5) Lactotropes = Prolactin (PRL)True or False: The anterior pituitary regulates reproduction, growth, energy metabolism, and stress responsesTRUE____ releases TRH and which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release _____. The following hormone acts on the ____ , which causes the release of _____.- Hypothalamus - TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) - thyroid gland - thyroid hormones (i.e. T4, T3, rT3)How is the Secretion of Hormones in the Anterior Pituitary Controlled? Release of hormones from the anterior pituitary is controlled by hypothalamic _____ hormones and hypothalamic _____ hormones which are secreted by special neurons located in the hypothalamus. Nerve endings terminate in the _____ . Hormones from the hypothalamus travel through the _____ vessels. The median eminence is the functional link between the _____ and the _____.- releasing - inhibitory - median eminence - hypothalamic-hypophysial portal vessels (important!!) - hypothalamus and the anterior pituitaryHow is the Secretion of Hormones in the Anterior Pituitary Controlled? (cont.) _____ in the paraventricular nucleus portion of the hypothalamus synthesize the hypothalamic releasing and hypothalamic inhibitory hormones The hormones are released into the median eminence and neural stalk and enter leaky ____ , hormones are then transported through the _____ directly to the sinuses of anterior pituitary.- Specialized neurons (these do not transmit signals) - capillaries - portal systemTrue or False: The posterior pituitary gland manufactures its own hormones.FALSE **Posterior gland does not produce hormones; it stores and secretes hormones produced by the hypothalamus.Posterior Pituitary Gland Magnocellular neurosecretory cells originate in the hypothalamus and receive afferent signals to produce and release _____ and _____ .oxytocin (OT) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)._____ nucleus releases ADH and small amount of OT. _____ nucleus releases ADH and OT .- Supraoptic - ParaventricularPosterior Pituitary Gland Nerve impulse will travel down either the ____ or ____ through the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract within the infundibulum. OT and ADH are transported to axon terminal by axonal transport with the help of _____ (carrier protein). Hormones are stored in _____ that terminate near _____ within the posterior pituitary. Like the anterior pituitary, the posterior pituitary is also controlled by the _____ ; however, hormones are not transported by a portal system.- Paraventricular nucleus or Supraoptic nucleus - neurophysin (Help facilitate movement of ADH and OT) - axon terminals - capillaries - hypothalamusThe posterior side is neural tissue. The glial cells (pituicytes) within the posterior pituitary do not produce any hormones, they are playing a support role for the _____ and _____ neurons that originate from the hypothalamus.paraventricular and supraopticAfferent signaling received by the supra-optic and paraventricular nuclei will produced required hormones that are then stored in _____ (within axon terminal) at the nerve endings that terminate at the capillaries within the posterior pituitary.secretory vesiclesEndocrine regulation occurs through _____ control & can involve hierarchic levels of control (Positive or Negative?) FB: response reduces initial stimulus (Positive or Negative?) FB: response reinforces initial stimulus- feedback - Negative - PositiveWhich of the following is NOT one of the 3 Integrating Centers for the Anterior Pituitary Gland? A) Endocrine target B) Anterior pituitary C) Hypothalamus D) A and C E) B and C F) None of the above G) All of the above are Integrating Centers for the Anterior Pituitary GlandG) All of the above are Integrating Centers for the Anterior Pituitary GlandIf there are hyposecretion from damage to the anterior pituitary gland, will we expect to see an increase or decrease in secretion from the hypothalamus?IncreaseIf there are hyposecretion from atrophy of the adrenal cortex, will we expect to see an increase or decrease in secretion from the anterior pituitary?increaseMost disorders arise from the (anterior or posterior?) side. State whether not each of the following is a common cause of pituitary disorders: - Trauma to the head - Genetic disorders - Tumors (cancerous and non-cancerous) - Benign adenomas (non-cancerous) - Tumors that are placing excessive pressure on the optic nerve, and hypothalamus - Infarction of the pituitary tissue- anterior side - all of the options are common causes that result in pituitary disordersTypes of Endocrine Pathologies associated with the Pituitary gland: Excessive amount of hormones = _____ examples: Hormone deficiency = _____ examples: Which of the following is NOT and abnormal responsiveness of target tissue to a hormone? A) Problems with signaling transduction pathway B) Down-regulation of receptors C) Alterations in the structure of receptors D) Missing receptors E) All of the above are abnormal responsiveness of target tissue to a hormone- Hyperactivity (hypersecretion) examples: Tumors/cancer, grave's disease - Hypoactivity (hyposecretion) examples: Goiter, diabetes - E) All of the above are abnormal responsiveness of target tissue to a hormoneFor the conditions below, state whether or not it is the result of hyperactivity or hypoactivity and which parts are involved (anterior or posterior pituitary). 1) Diabetes insipidus = _____ and _____ 2) Gigantism = _____ and _____ 3) Acromegaly = _____ and _____ 4) Dwarfism = _____ and _____ 5) Syndrome of inappropriate hypersecretion of ADH (SIADH) = _____ and _____ 6) Acromicria = _____ and _____ 7) Acromegalic gigantism = _____ and _____ 8) Cushing's Disease = _____ and _____ 9) Simmond's disease = _____ and _____1) hypoactivity and posterior pituitary 2) hyperactivity and anterior pituitary 3) hyperactivity and anterior pituitary 4) hypoactivity and anterior pituitary 5) hyperactivity and posterior activity 6) hypoactivity and anterior pituitary 7) hyperactivity and anterior pituitary 8) hyperactivity and anterior pituitary 9) hypoactivity and anterior pituitaryGrowth Hormone: Direct Metabolic Functions GH is (anabolic or catabolic?), stimulates the growth of almost all tissues of the body that can grow (increase in the number of cells) GH also (increases or decreases?) the rate of protein synthesis in most cells of the body and (increases or decreases?) the rate of glucose utilization throughout the body (diabetogenic action) It also (increases or decreases?) the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue and increases levels of free fatty acids in the blood (Limited or Excess?) amount of growth hormone can cause a "ketogenic" effect Growth hormone causes multiple effects that influence carbohydrate metabolism, including (1) (increased or decreased?) glucose uptake in tissues such as skeletal muscle and fat, (2) (increased or decreased?) glucose production by the liver, and (3) (increased or decreased?) insulin secretion (Limited or Excess?) secretion of growth hormone can produce metabolic disturbances similar to those found in patients with type II- anabolic - increases - decreases - increases - Excess - decreased - increased - increased - ExcessIndirect Actions of GH on Skeletal Growth: GH stimulates the production of ____ from hepatocytes IGF-1 mediates the growth-promoting effects of ____ on the skeleton True or False: IGF-1 exerts direct actions on both cartilage and bone to stimulate growth and differentiation These effects are crucial for growth during which phase of life? A) childhood to the end of adolescence B) adolescence to early adulthood C) late adulthood to the end of life D) none of these are correct- IGF-1 - GH - True - A) childhood to the end of adolescenceGrowth Hormone: Protein Deficiency: Acute conditions: (Hypo or Hyper?)glycemia is a potent stimulator of GH Chronic condition: Extreme protein deficiency is a potent (stimulator or inhibitor?) of GH Example: (High or Low?) GH with protein deficiency/malnutrition. Carbohydrate treatment (is or is not?) effective in lowering GH, requires protein treatment.- Hypoglycemia - stimulator - High - is NOTGrowth hormone: pituitary adenomas (benign): Fill in the blanks below with Gigantism or Acromegaly. 1) _____ = Occurs prior to closure of the epiphyseal plate 2) _____ = Occurs mostly in adults 3) _____ = bones most affected: face, jaw, hands, feet 4) _____ = reduced lifespan 5) _____ = very abrupt and rapid onset 6) _____ = additional pituitary hormone related problems as tumor enlarges such a hypopituitarism 7) _____ = Occurs mostly in children 8) _____ = Occurs after epiphyseal plate closure 9) _____ = long bones most affected 10) _____ = bones become thicker 11) _____ = slower onset, progressive1) Gigantism 2) Acromegaly 3) Acromegaly 4) Gigantism 5) Gigantism 6) Acromegaly 7) Gigantism 8) Acromegaly 9) Gigantism (can reach 8-9 feet) 10) Acromegaly 11) AcromegalyTrue or False: Growth hormone (GH) serves important roles in adult life, including maintenance of lean body mass and bone mass, promoting lipolysis, thereby limiting visceral adiposity, and regulating carbohydrate metabolism, cardiovascular system function, aerobic exercise capacity, and cognitive function.TrueAntidiuretic Hormone (ADH): Stimulated by (increased or decreased?) extracellular osmolarity (detected by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus), (high or low?) blood volume Inhibited by (high or low?) extracellular osmolarity Target organ: kidney to (increase or decrease?) the excretion of water in the urine True or False: The primary effect of ADH is: collecting tubules of the kidney's become less permeable to water in response to ADH.- increased - low - low - decrease (urine is more concentrated, water is conserved) - FALSE (more permeable; acts to retain water)Fill in the blank with "Increasing Extracellular Osmolarity" or "Decreasing Extracellular Osmolarity" when it comes to ADH secretion. 1) _____ = Water pulled from the cell to the extracellular fluid 2) _____ = Stimulates the hypothalamus to increase ADH secretion from the supraoptic neuron 3) _____ = Water moves from extracellular fluid to the cell 4) _____ = Water will be conserved 5) _____ = Inhibits the secretion of ADH from the supraoptic neuron 6) _____ = Water will be excreted1) Increased Extracellular Osmolarity 2) Increased Extracellular Osmolarity 3) Decreased Extracellular Osmolarity 4) Increased Extracellular Osmolarity 5) Decreased Extracellular Osmolarity 6) Decreased Extracellular OsmolarityHow do the stretch receptors in the atria, carotid and aortic arteries respond to changes in blood volume? >>> (Increased or Decreased?) Blood Volume = Reduced ADH released (Increased or Decreased?) Blood Volume = Increased ADH released; Causes constriction of blood vessels, increased arterial pressure- Increased (If you have too much blood volume, you will decrease ADH) - DecreasedAngiotensin II acts on the brain. Here, it has two effects. 1) First, it binds to the _____ , stimulating thirst and increased water intake. 2) Second, it stimulates the release of _____ by the posterior pituitary.1) hypothalamus 2) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)Diabetes Insipidus: Neurogenic (also called central): failure of the hypothalamus to produce _____ - Genetic, head injury, tumors of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland Nephrogenic: failure of the _____ to respond to ADH - Lithium and tetracycline can cause this Dispogenic: thirst mechanism of the hypothalamus is defective, resulting in (secretion or suppression?) of ADH True or False: Psychiatric disease has been linked to dispogenic DI. True or False: Hormones from the placenta destroy the ADH molecule.- ADH - kidney - suppression - TRUE - TRUEFill in the blank with Diabetes Mellitus or Diabetes Insipidus. _____ = Excess glucose in urine (Hyperglycemia of blood) _____ = Very dilute urine (Reducing fluid intake will not make the urine more concentrated) _____ = No sugar (Hyperglycemia of blood not found) _____ = Very concentrated urine True or False: In both cases there is a failure to reabsorb water in the renal tubules.- Diabetes Mellitus - Diabetes Insipidus - Diabetes Insipidus - Diabetes Mellitus - TRUEClinical manifestations of diabetes insipidus: Which of the following are not red flags for diabetes insipidus? A) Polydipsia B) Nocturia C) Polyuria D) Dehydration E) Insomnia F) All of the above are examples of red flagsE) InsomniaWhat saline solution would you administer if your patient experiences hyponatremia?Low Salt; So give pt. hypertonic IV solution to push water the other way