very wek electrical attractions due to charge asymmetry
making and breaking of chemical bonds reactants->product
-pure water is a solvent -only common molecule that exists in 3 states -forms hydrogen bonds -polar covalent molecule -polar molecules and ions dissolve easily in water -non polar molecules do NOT dissolve easily -frozen is less dense than liquid
stick to surface
measure of difficulty to break the surface of water
forms in ice with water molecules
(MW) sun of atoms weight, 1 mol
# of mols solute/liter ex:glucose C6H12O6 MW=342 g/L=1 mol glucose
what is the pH of blood?
what is the pH of rain water?
[H+] of 10^-7 mol/L
1 pH unit=10 fold (change) [H+]
basic pH 14 neutral pH 7 acidic pH 1
take up or release of hydrogen [H+] -minimizes changes in hydrogen and hydroxide ions -range pH 4-6
what is dependent on pH?
branch of chemistry concerned with "energy changes"
what is a close system?
what is an open system?
what is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
"transfered and transformed" -energy cannot be created nor destroyed -total energy in the universe remains constant -energy is lost as heat
what's 2nd law of thermodynamics
"entropy" -continuously increases -energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter
a disorder that increases spontaneously
more ordered->less stable less ordered->more stable
capacity to do work
energy of motion
where do photosynthetic organisms capture energy from?
what do organisms utilize?
Gibbs, free energy
G=H-T*S free energy=total energy-absolute temperature * entropy
requires input of energy not spontaneous needs help/additive products>free energy than reactants + change in G
happens on its own spontaneous products<free energy than reactants - change in G
if the change of G does not equal zero...
if the change of G do equal zero...
death, no work occurs
the measure of instability
high potential energy more order
low potential energy less order high entropy
backbone of biomolecules bonding of C+H,N,O,P,S
proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, & lipids
how many covalent bonds can carbon form? Is carbon branches?
molecules backbone or skeleton composed of only C+H nonpolar tend to make hydrophilic involved in chemical reactions
4...proteins can be broken down into these 4 basic levles
what are the 4 levels of protein conformations?
1.Primary structure-polypeptide bonds 2.Secondary structure- polypeptides joining with hydrogen bonds 3. tertiary structure-interactions determine structure; they are diverse 4. Quaternary structure- intramolecular or intermolecular
loss of structure and function; unfolded
speeds up chemical reaction
protein that functions as a catalyst
in a secondary structure, what are the 2 structures protein backbones can form?
a helix- backbone is coiled or a B-pleated sheet- peptide chain bends 180 and then folds
depends on primary structure; formation of helices and pleated sheets in a polypeptide
over all 3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide; bonds and other interactions between R-groups; depends on primary and secondary
van der waals interaction; shape produced by combionations of polypeptides; bonds and interactions between R-groups; depends on primary, secondary and tertiary structure; ionic and hydrogen bonds form between polypeptide chains
catalytic center, where catalysis occurs; where substrates bind and react
location other than the active site where molecules bind
amount of free energy requred to reach the transition state
enzyme of metabolic pathway..
1. directional 2. "substrate specific" 3. steps cannot be skipped 4.any enzyme absent=reaction stops 5. each substrate becomes a product 6. synthetic and degradative pathways can interact 7. reactions can be regulated 8. most globular proteins 9. speed up reaction time 10. not permanetly altered -> recycled 11. -ase. when ending in this, usually an enzyme