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"father of taxonomy", created the binomial system of nomenclature 1700's, 'Genus species'(underlinded)
1.experimental research is experimental.
2.descriptive research is observational.
3 domains, 6 kingdoms, species=most specific
what are the 7 characteristics of all living organisms?
1.composed of cells & highly organized
2.emergent properties- complex & ordered
3. external stimuli-respond to the environment
4. Biogenesis, grow-develop, & reproduce
5. metabolism-obtain & use energy
6. homeostasis-stable internal balance
7. life changes-allow evolutionary adaptation
1.each level of organization is more complex than the previous
2.properties arise b/c of the interactions of the WHOLE
3.the WHOLE is greater than the sun of the parts
4.are not additive
stages of an atom ->
examples of external stimuli,
-light (+) plus/towards (-) negative/away
-chemical " "
-naturalist on the "beagle"
-mapped expedition around coastal S.America (5yrs)
-studied and observed for 30 years
-published "On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection" 1859
group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior, only breed with one another in nature
-jean baptisit lamarck ("use/disuse" giraffes)
-alfred Russell wallace 1858 (had same concept at darwin)
-charles darwin "origin of the species 1859
Natural selection drives evolution by...
1. individual variations
2. over-production (reproduction potential)
3.limits on population growth
4.differential reproductive success
what are the 5 scientific evidence for evolution
2. comparative anatomy homology
3. biogeography homology
5. genetic homology
-any trace of an organism that lived in the past
-origin of first prokaryote cells to the origin of humans
=similar structure evolved different function
-same ancestral structure but different function
-different appearance and different function
-derived from same body part but different function
=structures of different origin used for the same purpose (ex: butterfly wings & bird wings)
-remnants of organs w/ important ancestral functions (ex:appendix, tailbone, hair)
-geographic relatedness (pangaea)
-two different environments that support groups of plant/animal life that suggests ancestral relatedness
-relatedness of DNA sequence
-DNA code is common to living organisms
-highly conserved proteins
what are the 12 biotic(living) elements?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, magnesium
what are the most important elements?
CHNOPS- carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
is the # of protons (#Protons=#Neutrons)
amount located in the bottom left of element Symbol
-2electrons in each orbital (max)
-1st energy level has 2 electrons
-2nd energy level has 8 electrons
-each shell filled before the next
electrons differs in their energy content
electron shells designate relative amount of potential energy
levels of bond strength..
covalent->ionic->hydrogen->hydrophobic interaction->van der waals attraction
-atoms share valence electrons
-strength depends on # of shared electrons
-single bond<double bond<triple bond
attraction of oppositely charged ions
ex: Na donates an electron & Cl accepts it
NaCl redox rx, both shells are filled
-pure water is a solvent
-only common molecule that exists in 3 states
-forms hydrogen bonds
-polar covalent molecule
-polar molecules and ions dissolve easily in water
-non polar molecules do NOT dissolve easily
-frozen is less dense than liquid
take up or release of hydrogen [H+]
-minimizes changes in hydrogen and hydroxide ions
-range pH 4-6
what is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
"transfered and transformed"
-energy cannot be created nor destroyed
-total energy in the universe remains constant
-energy is lost as heat
what's 2nd law of thermodynamics
-energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter
requires input of energy
products>free energy than reactants
+ change in G
molecules backbone or skeleton
composed of only C+H
tend to make hydrophilic
involved in chemical reactions
How many protein conformation levels are there?
4...proteins can be broken down into these 4 basic levles
what are the 4 levels of protein conformations?
1.Primary structure-polypeptide bonds
2.Secondary structure- polypeptides joining with hydrogen bonds
3. tertiary structure-interactions determine structure; they are diverse
4. Quaternary structure- intramolecular or intermolecular
in a secondary structure, what are the 2 structures protein backbones can form?
a helix- backbone is coiled or
a B-pleated sheet- peptide chain bends 180 and then folds
what are bonds tertiary structures form?
depends on primary structure; formation of helices and pleated sheets in a polypeptide
over all 3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide; bonds and other interactions between R-groups; depends on primary and secondary
van der waals interaction; shape produced by combionations of polypeptides; bonds and interactions between R-groups; depends on primary, secondary and tertiary structure; ionic and hydrogen bonds form between polypeptide chains
enzyme of metabolic pathway..
2. "substrate specific"
3. steps cannot be skipped
4.any enzyme absent=reaction stops
5. each substrate becomes a product
6. synthetic and degradative pathways can interact
7. reactions can be regulated
8. most globular proteins
9. speed up reaction time
10. not permanetly altered -> recycled
11. -ase. when ending in this, usually an enzyme
atoms or group of atoms; also called side chains ( the element that branches downwards below the chain)
contains deoxyribose sugar
ATGC- contains thymine
double strand, helix
what are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
3. nitrogen bases (purines and pyrimidines)
-standard directionally- 5 down to 3, 3 down to 5
-strands are held together by hydrogen bonds btwn nitrogenous bases
- runs in opposite direction
-only purine-pyrimidine pairs fit inside double helix
complementary base pairing in DNA helix...
G->C (guanine to cytosine) 3 bonds
A->T ( adenine to thymine)2 bonds
*G->C is harder bond to break
when do strands seperate?
dna strands seperate when hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs are broken
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