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176 terms

Bio Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
prokaryotic
no true nucleus, nucleoids, bacteria
eukaryotic
has a nucleus, membrane-bounded
Linnaeus
"father of taxonomy", created the binomial system of nomenclature 1700's, 'Genus species'(underlinded)
scientific method
observation
form hypothesis
prediction
experiment & analyze data
conclusion
scientific theory
explanation that has withstood rigorous testing
cell theory
all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells
controlled experiment
tests with a controlled variable, tests each 1 at a time
***
1.experimental research is experimental.
2.descriptive research is observational.
__________________________________________
3 domains, 6 kingdoms, species=most specific
What are the 3 domains?
1.bacteria
2.Archaea
3.Eukarya
What are the 6 kingdoms?
1.animals
2.fungi
3.plant
4.protist
5.archaebacteria
6.Eubacteria
What are the studies for Placebo effect?
single blind study
double blind study
what are archaea?
single cell, prokaryotes
what are bacteria?
single cell, prokaryotes
what are eukarya?
eukaroytic, single or multicellular
what are animalia?
heterotrophs (eat other things)
what are fungi?
saprophytes (eat dead material)
what are plantae?
autotrophs (make their own food, eat themselves)
what are protisits?
collection of different things, great diversity
biotic world
living world
abiotic world
nonliving world
what are the 7 characteristics of all living organisms?
1.composed of cells & highly organized
2.emergent properties- complex & ordered
3. external stimuli-respond to the environment
4. Biogenesis, grow-develop, & reproduce
5. metabolism-obtain & use energy
6. homeostasis-stable internal balance
7. life changes-allow evolutionary adaptation
cell
a unit, by Robert Hooke 1665
emergent properties
1.each level of organization is more complex than the previous
2.properties arise b/c of the interactions of the WHOLE
3.the WHOLE is greater than the sun of the parts
4.are not additive
stages of an atom ->
atom->molecules->macromolecule->organelle->cells->tissue->organ->organ system->organism->population->species->community->ecosystem->biosphere
at what level does evolution occur at?
population level
phototaxis
chemotaxis
examples of external stimuli,
-light (+) plus/towards (-) negative/away
-chemical " "
biogenesis
life comes from life
charles darwin
-naturalist on the "beagle"
-mapped expedition around coastal S.America (5yrs)
-studied and observed for 30 years
-published "On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection" 1859
evolution
process where characteristics of organisms change over times, "gradual divergence"
species
group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior, only breed with one another in nature
adaptation
any form, function or behavior that promotes the likely-hood of a species survival
genome
all genes have an organism
mutation
a change in the DNA
gene pool
all genes and their variations in a population
pre-darwinian ideas...
-aristotle
-jean baptisit lamarck ("use/disuse" giraffes)
-alfred Russell wallace 1858 (had same concept at darwin)
-charles darwin "origin of the species 1859
Natural selection drives evolution by...
1. individual variations
2. over-production (reproduction potential)
3.limits on population growth
4.differential reproductive success
what are the 5 scientific evidence for evolution
1. fossil
2. comparative anatomy homology
3. biogeography homology
4.development homology
5. genetic homology
Fossil: evidence
-any trace of an organism that lived in the past
-origin of first prokaryote cells to the origin of humans
comparative anatomy:evidence
1. homologous structures
2.analogous structure
3.vestigial structures
homologous structures
=similar structure evolved different function
-same ancestral structure but different function
-different appearance and different function
-derived from same body part but different function
analogous structures
=structures of different origin used for the same purpose (ex: butterfly wings & bird wings)
vestigial structures
-evolutionary relicts
-remnants of organs w/ important ancestral functions (ex:appendix, tailbone, hair)
biogeography:evidence
-geographic relatedness (pangaea)
-two different environments that support groups of plant/animal life that suggests ancestral relatedness
-"continental drift"
development:evidence
-early embryos of vertebrates are very similar & diverge as they develop
genetic: evidence
-relatedness of DNA sequence
-DNA code is common to living organisms
-highly conserved proteins
"Vital Force"
Chemistry
matter
anything that takes up space
3 states
solid
liquid
gas
what are the 12 biotic(living) elements?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, magnesium
what are the most important elements?
CHNOPS- carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
compounds
fixed ratio of elements
mixtures
not fixed ratio of elements ex: air
protons
1 mass unit or 1 dalton
positively charged
located in the nucleus
neutrons
1 mass unit or 1 dalton
neutral charge
located in the nucleus
electrons
so small that weight is disregarded
negatively charged
found outside the nucleus
atomic mass
# of protons + # of neutrons
amount located in the top left of element Symbol
atomic number
is the # of protons (#Protons=#Neutrons)
amount located in the bottom left of element Symbol
ion
charged particle; 2 types
cation
(+) positive charge
# of protons is greater than # of electrons
anion
(-) negative charge
# of protons is less than # of electrons
isotopes
# of protons does NOT equal # of neutrons
half-life
time it takes for one-half of the atoms in a sample to decay
Atoms...
1. have weight
2. have chemical properties
where are electrons located?
in the orbitals outside
what determines chemical behavior in an atom?
number and arrangement
Bohr model
discrete orbitals; around a nucleus where electrons are found
electron orbitals
-2electrons in each orbital (max)
-1st energy level has 2 electrons
-2nd energy level has 8 electrons
-each shell filled before the next
spherical orbitals..
1s=spherical orbital
2s=1 spherical orbital
2p=3 dumbbell ortibals
energy levels
electrons differs in their energy content
electron shells designate relative amount of potential energy
valence shell
outter most shell of orbital
valence
electrons in outer most shell
inert atom
unreactive atom, valence shell is full (8)
chemical bonds
molecules formed when valence electrons react with one another
energy relationships
needed to break or bind a bond
redox reaction
"reduction oxidation", when there is reduction there is oxidation (vice versa)
oxidation
loss of an election (Oxidation Is Lost)
reduction
gain of an election (Reduction Is Gained)
molecules
chemical bond
groups of atoms held together by stable association
compounds
chemical bond
molecules with more than 1 type of element
levels of bond strength..
covalent->ionic->hydrogen->hydrophobic interaction->van der waals attraction
covalent bonds
-atoms share valence electrons
-strength depends on # of shared electrons
-single bond<double bond<triple bond
electronegatively
attraction of electrons towards an atom making the atom a negative ion
nonpolar
shares electrons equally (H2)
polar
unequal sharing of electrons (H2O)
ionic bonds
attraction of oppositely charged ions
ex: Na donates an electron & Cl accepts it
NaCl redox rx, both shells are filled
hydrogen bonds
-weak electrical attractions
-intramolecular
-intermolecular
hydrophobic
very weak, aqueous
van der waals
very wek electrical attractions due to charge asymmetry
chemical reactions
making and breaking of chemical bonds
reactants->product
water
-pure water is a solvent
-only common molecule that exists in 3 states
-forms hydrogen bonds
-polar covalent molecule
-polar molecules and ions dissolve easily in water
-non polar molecules do NOT dissolve easily
-frozen is less dense than liquid
cohesive
stick together
adhesive
stick to surface
surface tension
measure of difficulty to break the surface of water
crystal lattice
forms in ice with water molecules
molecular weight
(MW) sun of atoms weight, 1 mol
molarity
# of mols solute/liter
ex:glucose C6H12O6 MW=342 g/L=1 mol glucose
what is the pH of blood?
7.35-7.45
what is the pH of rain water?
6.24
neutral pH?
[H+] of 10^-7 mol/L
1 pH unit=10 fold (change) [H+]
***
basic pH 14
neutral pH 7
acidic pH 1
***
buffer
take up or release of hydrogen [H+]
-minimizes changes in hydrogen and hydroxide ions
-range pH 4-6
what is dependent on pH?
enzyme function
thermodynamics
branch of chemistry concerned with "energy changes"
what is a close system?
the biosphere
what is an open system?
organisms
what is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
"transfered and transformed"
-energy cannot be created nor destroyed
-total energy in the universe remains constant
-energy is lost as heat
what's 2nd law of thermodynamics
"entropy"
-continuously increases
-energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter
entropy
a disorder that increases spontaneously
more ordered->less stable
less ordered->more stable
***
energy
capacity to do work
potential energy
stored energy
kinetic energy
energy of motion
where do photosynthetic organisms capture energy from?
the sun
what do organisms utilize?
free energy
Gibbs, free energy
G=H-T*S
free energy=total energy-absolute temperature * entropy
endergonic
requires input of energy
not spontaneous
needs help/additive
products>free energy than reactants
+ change in G
exergonic
happens on its own
spontaneous
products<free energy than reactants
- change in G
if the change of G does not equal zero...
work occurs
if the change of G do equal zero...
death, no work occurs
G equals...
the measure of instability
products ->
high potential energy
more order
reactants->
low potential energy
less order
high entropy
carbon
backbone of biomolecules
bonding of C+H,N,O,P,S
organic molecules
proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, & lipids
how many covalent bonds can carbon form?
Is carbon branches?
4
yes
hydrocarbons
molecules backbone or skeleton
composed of only C+H
nonpolar
tend to make hydrophilic
involved in chemical reactions
hydrophobic
"water fearing" non polar
hydrophilic
"water loving" polar
what are the 6 functional groups?
amino acids
carbonyl
carboxyl
hydroxyl
phosphate
sulfhydryl
dimers
2 chained
non-ionized form
OH
ionized form
O-
condesation
monomer in, water out
hydrolysis
water in, monomer out (adding H2O)
Is there rotation around a peptide bond?
NO
How many protein conformation levels are there?
4...proteins can be broken down into these 4 basic levles
what are the 4 levels of protein conformations?
1.Primary structure-polypeptide bonds
2.Secondary structure- polypeptides joining with hydrogen bonds
3. tertiary structure-interactions determine structure; they are diverse
4. Quaternary structure- intramolecular or intermolecular
denaturation
loss of structure and function; unfolded
catalyst
speeds up chemical reaction
enzyme
protein that functions as a catalyst
in a secondary structure, what are the 2 structures protein backbones can form?
a helix- backbone is coiled or
a B-pleated sheet- peptide chain bends 180 and then folds
what are bonds tertiary structures form?
peptide
hydrogen
hydrophobic
disulfide brigdes/covalent
ionic
primary structure
sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide bond
secondary structure
depends on primary structure; formation of helices and pleated sheets in a polypeptide
tertiarty structure
over all 3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide; bonds and other interactions between R-groups; depends on primary and secondary
quaternary structure
van der waals interaction; shape produced by combionations of polypeptides; bonds and interactions between R-groups; depends on primary, secondary and tertiary structure; ionic and hydrogen bonds form between polypeptide chains
active site
catalytic center, where catalysis occurs; where substrates bind and react
allosteric site
location other than the active site where molecules bind
activation energy
amount of free energy requred to reach the transition state
enzyme of metabolic pathway..
1. directional
2. "substrate specific"
3. steps cannot be skipped
4.any enzyme absent=reaction stops
5. each substrate becomes a product
6. synthetic and degradative pathways can interact
7. reactions can be regulated
8. most globular proteins
9. speed up reaction time
10. not permanetly altered -> recycled
11. -ase. when ending in this, usually an enzyme
regulation in enzyme activity..
1. enzyme concentration
2. cofactors
3. inhibitors
intramolecules
hold themselves together
intermolecules
hold themselves and other neighboring molecules together
amino group-
NH2
carboxly group-
COOH.. at the end of chain
hydrogen group-
H
R group-
atoms or group of atoms; also called side chains ( the element that branches downwards below the chain)
inhibitor
binds to enzymes and decreases its activity
a-competitive inhibitor
competes with substrate for active site
DNA
genetic material
info storage
a polymer
contains deoxyribose sugar
ATGC- contains thymine
double strand, helix
RNA
protein synthesis
polymer
contains ribose sugar
AUGC- contains uracil
single strand, no helix
what are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
1. sugar
2. phosphate
3. nitrogen bases (purines and pyrimidines)
purines
adenin and guanine
double rings
6 fused to 5 member ring
pyrimidines
thymine, cytosine, uracil
single ring
6 member ring
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
energy molecule
Ribose
has OH, found in RNA
deoxyribose
has H, found in DNA
sugar backbone
1. parallel in space
2. each strand runs antiparallel
DNA strands...
-standard directionally- 5 down to 3, 3 down to 5
-strands are held together by hydrogen bonds btwn nitrogenous bases
- runs in opposite direction
-only purine-pyrimidine pairs fit inside double helix
complementary base pairing in DNA helix...
G->C (guanine to cytosine) 3 bonds
A->T ( adenine to thymine)2 bonds
*G->C is harder bond to break
when do strands seperate?
dna strands seperate when hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs are broken
DNA makes their own template...
1. strand separation
2. base pairing
4. polymerization
polymerization
the original molecule has been copied, semi conservative replication
wheres the hairpin found?
in RNA, stem and loop
does RNA have a helix?
NO