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An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull to treat abnormal behavior


According to the Greeks and Romans, bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning

Moral Treatment

A 19th century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment

Somatogenic Perspective

The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes

Psychogenic Perspective

The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological


Either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology

Psychotropic Medications

Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning


The practice of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals


Interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop

Positive Psychology

The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits and abilities

Multicultural Psychology

The field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender and similar factors on our behaviors/thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature and treatment of abnormal behavior

Managed Care Program

A system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature, scope and cost of medical or psychological services

Nomothetic Understanding

A general understanding of the nature, causes and treatments of abnormal psychological functioning in the form of laws or principles

Internal Validity

The accuracy with which a study can pinpoint one of various possible factors as the cause of a phenomenon

External Validity

The degree to which the results of a study may be generalized beyond that study

Epidemiological Study

A study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population


The number of new cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time


The total number of cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time

Longitudinal Study

A study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a longer period of time


An experiment in which investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exists in the world at large

Natural Experiment

An experiment in which nature, rather than an experimenter, manipulates and independent variable

Analogue Experiment

The experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants

Psychotropic Medications

Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning

Antianxiety Drugs

Drugs that help reduce tension and anxiety

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

A form of biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient's forehead


The psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives and impulses


The psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle


The psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals

Ego Theory

The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego and considers it an independent force

Self Theory

The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self- our unified personality

Object Relations Theory

The psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior

Free Association

A psychodnamic technique in which the patient describes any thought ,feeling or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant


An unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy


According to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient's life, now or in the past


The reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems

Working Through

The process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings and overcoming one's problems

Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy

A form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists active participants in the formation of patients' feelings and reactions, and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients

Systematic Desensitization

A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread

Client-Centered Therapy

The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness

Gestalt Therapy

The humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognician and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises

Existential Therapy

A therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values

Family Systems Theory

A theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules


A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together

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