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43 terms

Abnormal Psych- Exam #1

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Trephination
An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull to treat abnormal behavior
Humors
According to the Greeks and Romans, bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning
Moral Treatment
A 19th century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment
Somatogenic Perspective
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
Psychogenic Perspective
The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
Psychoanalysis
Either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology
Psychotropic Medications
Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
Deinstitutionalization
The practice of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals
Prevention
Interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop
Positive Psychology
The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits and abilities
Multicultural Psychology
The field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender and similar factors on our behaviors/thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature and treatment of abnormal behavior
Managed Care Program
A system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature, scope and cost of medical or psychological services
Nomothetic Understanding
A general understanding of the nature, causes and treatments of abnormal psychological functioning in the form of laws or principles
Internal Validity
The accuracy with which a study can pinpoint one of various possible factors as the cause of a phenomenon
External Validity
The degree to which the results of a study may be generalized beyond that study
Epidemiological Study
A study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population
Incidence
The number of new cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time
Prevalence
The total number of cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time
Longitudinal Study
A study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a longer period of time
Quasi-Experiment
An experiment in which investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exists in the world at large
Natural Experiment
An experiment in which nature, rather than an experimenter, manipulates and independent variable
Analogue Experiment
The experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants
Psychotropic Medications
Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
Antianxiety Drugs
Drugs that help reduce tension and anxiety
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A form of biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient's forehead
Id
The psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives and impulses
Ego
The psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle
Superego
The psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals
Ego Theory
The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego and considers it an independent force
Self Theory
The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self- our unified personality
Object Relations Theory
The psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior
Free Association
A psychodnamic technique in which the patient describes any thought ,feeling or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant
Resistance
An unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy
Transference
According to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient's life, now or in the past
Catharsis
The reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems
Working Through
The process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings and overcoming one's problems
Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy
A form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists active participants in the formation of patients' feelings and reactions, and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients
Systematic Desensitization
A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
Client-Centered Therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness
Gestalt Therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognician and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises
Existential Therapy
A therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values
Family Systems Theory
A theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules
Syndrome
A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together